Review Questions

Review Questions

Dehydration synthesis leads to the formation of what?
  1. monomers
  2. polymers
  3. carbohydrates only
  4. water only
What is removed during the formation of nucleic acid polymers?
  1. carbon
  2. hydroxyl groups
  3. phosphates
  4. amino acids
During the breakdown of polymers, which of the following reactions takes place?
  1. condensation
  2. covalent bond
  3. dehydration
  4. hydrolysis
Energy is released as a result of which of the following chemical reactions?
  1. condensation
  2. dehydration synthesis
  3. hydrolysis
  4. dissolution

In the metabolism of the cell, why is hydrolysis used?

  1. Hydrolysis is used to break down polymers.
  2. Hydrolysis is used to form linkages in DNA.
  3. Hydrolysis is used to produce proteins.
  4. Hydrolysis is used to synthesize new macromolecules.
Plant cell walls contain which of the following in abundance?
  1. cellulose
  2. glycogen
  3. lactose
  4. starch
What makes up the outer layer of some insects?
  1. carbohydrate
  2. protein
  3. RNA
  4. triglyceride
What is an example of a monosaccharide?
  1. cellulose
  2. fructose
  3. lactose
  4. sucrose
Cellulose and starch are examples of ________?
  1. disaccharides
  2. lipids
  3. monosaccharides
  4. polysaccharides
What type of bond joins the molecules in the disaccharide lactose? What molecule is joined with glucose to form lactose?
  1. a glycosidic bond between glucose and lactose
  2. a glycosidic bond between glucose and galactose
  3. a hydrogen bond between glucose and sucrose
  4. a hydrogen bond between glucose and fructose

What is structurally different about cellulose when compared to starch?

  1. An extra hydrogen atom is left on the monomer.
  2. ß-1,4 glycosidic linkages are used
  3. a-1,6 glycosidic linkages are used
  4. An extra hydroxyl group is removed during synthesis.
Which of the following are classified as lipids?
  1. disaccharides and cellulose
  2. essential amino acids
  3. mRNA and DNA
  4. oils and waxes
What is cholesterol specifically classified as?
  1. a lipid
  2. a phospholipid
  3. a steroid
  4. a wax
Which fat serves as an animal’s major form of energy storage?
  1. cholesterol
  2. glycerol
  3. phospholipid
  4. triglycerides
Which hormones are made from cholesterol?
  1. estradiol and testosterone
  2. insulin and growth hormone
  3. progesterone and glucagon
  4. prolactin and thyroid hormone
Which of the following characteristics is not true for saturated fats?
  1. They are solid at room temperature.
  2. They have single bonds within the carbon chain.
  3. They contain mostly hydrogen and carbon atoms.
  4. They tend to dissolve in water easily.
Which fat has the least number of hydrogen atoms?
  1. trans fat
  2. saturated fat
  3. unsaturated fat
  4. wax
Of what are phospholipids important components?
  1. the double bond in hydrocarbon chains
  2. the plasma membrane of animal cells
  3. the ring structure of steroids
  4. the waxy covering on leaves
What is a diacylglycerol 3-phosphate?
  1. phospholipid
  2. phosphatidylcholine
  3. phosphatidylserine
  4. phosphatidate

What is the basic structure of a steroid?

  1. four fused hydrocarbon rings
  2. glycerol with three fatty acid chains
  3. two fatty-acid chains and a phosphate group
  4. two six-carbon rings
Besides its use in hormone production, for what does the body use cholesterol?
  1. mRNA transport
  2. production of bile salts
  3. water reabsorption in the kidney
  4. wax production
Where is cholesterol found in cell membranes?
  1. attached to the inner side of the membrane
  2. attached to the outer side of the membrane
  3. floating in the phospholipid tail layer
  4. penetrating both lipid layers
Which type of body cell would have a higher amount of cholesterol in its membrane?
  1. a cartilage cell
  2. a liver cell
  3. a red blood cell
  4. a spleen cell
Which of the following is a function of proteins in cells?
  1. energy storage
  2. gene storage and access
  3. membrane fluidity
  4. structure
What type of protein facilitates or accelerates chemical reactions?
  1. an enzyme
  2. a hormone
  3. a membrane transport protein
  4. a tRNA molecule

A protein is embedded in the outer surface of a phospholipid bilayer. Where would you expect to find polar versus nonpolar amino acid side chains within this protein, relative to the head and tail regions of the phospholipids?

What are the monomers that make up proteins called?
  1. amino acids
  2. chaperones
  3. disaccharides
  4. nucleotides

Where is the linkage made that combines two amino acids?

  1. between the R group of one amino acid and the R group of the second
  2. between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the other
  3. between the six carbon of both amino acids
  4. between the nitrogen atoms of the amino groups in the amino acids

The α-helix and the β-pleated sheet are part of which protein structure?

  1. the primary structure
  2. the secondary structure
  3. the tertiary structure
  4. the quaternary structure

Which structural level of proteins is most often associated with their biological function?

  1. the primary structure
  2. the secondary structure
  3. the tertiary structure
  4. the quaternary structure
Which of the following may cause a protein to denature?
  1. changes in pH
  2. high temperatures
  3. the addition of some chemicals
  4. all of the above
What is a protein’s chaperone?
  1. a chemical that assists the protein in its enzymatic functions
  2. a second protein that completes the quaternary structure
  3. a chemical that helps the protein fold properly
  4. a chemical that functions as a cofactor for the protein
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
  1. nitrogenous bases
  2. nucleotides
  3. peptides
  4. sugars
What may a nucleotide of DNA contain?
  1. ribose, uracil, and a phosphate group
  2. deoxyribose, uracil, and a phosphate group
  3. deoxyribose, thymine, and a phosphate group
  4. ribose, thymine, and a phosphate group
What is DNA’s structure described as?
  1. a step ladder
  2. a double helix
  3. a tertiary protein-like structure
  4. barber pole
What is found in RNA that is not in DNA?
  1. deoxyribose and adenine
  2. fructose and thymine
  3. glucose and quinine
  4. ribose and uracil
What is the smallest type of RNA?
  1. mRNA
  2. miRNA
  3. rRNA
  4. tRNA
Where is the largest amount of DNA found in a eukaryotic cell?
  1. attached to the inner layer of the cell membrane
  2. in the nucleus
  3. in the cytoplasm
  4. on ribosomes