Review Questions

Review Questions


________ is a type of general sense in humans.

  1. Gustation
  2. Olfaction
  3. Proprioception
  4. Equilibrium
Suppose you burned your tongue and could not taste food for a day. Identify the sense affected.
  1. olfaction
  2. gustation
  3. proprioception
  4. kinesthesia
State where perception occurs.
  1. spinal cord
  2. cerebral cortex
  3. receptors
  4. thalamus

If a person’s cold receptors no longer convert cold sensory signals into electrical signals, that person has a problem with ________.

  1. reception
  2. the receptive field
  3. perception
  4. transduction
What is the smallest difference in stimuli that can be detected?
  1. receptor potential
  2. sensory transduction
  3. just-noticeable difference
  4. perception

In peppers, spicy heat is rated in SHUs, where zero is the least amount of spicy heat. If the just-noticeable difference (JND) of the ability to perceive difference in heat detection for an individual is 30 percent, which of the following represents the JND of two different peppers?

  1. 8,500 vs. 11,000 SHU
  2. 4,050 vs. 15,000 SHU
  3. 15,000 vs. 18,000 SHU
  4. 10,500 vs. 15,000 SHU
What is the role of sensory receptors in sensory perception?
  1. detection of specific stimuli
  2. sensation interpretation
  3. sending electrical signals to the cortex
  4. transmitting signals from the brain to the rest of the body
Which mechanoreceptors in the skin are unencapsulated?
  1. Merkel’s disks
  2. Meissner’s corpuscles
  3. Ruffini endings
  4. Pacinian corpuscles

If an individual is born without the ability to sense high-frequency vibrations, he may have been born with a mutation in a gene that codes for ________.

  1. Merkel’s disks
  2. Meissner’s corpuscles
  3. Ruffini endings
  4. Pacinian corpuscles
If you were to burn your epidermis, what receptor type would most likely burn?
  1. free nerve endings
  2. Ruffini endings
  3. Pacinian corpuscles
  4. Krause end bulbs

________ are found only in ________ skin, and detect skin deflection.

  1. Meissner’s corpuscles, hairy
  2. Ruffini endings, glabrous
  3. Pacinian corpuscles, glabrous
  4. hair receptors, hairy
To what does nociception respond?
  1. injured stimuli
  2. deep, fleeting pressure
  3. fine touch
  4. cold

Why do peppers, which contain capsaicin, taste hot?

  1. Capsaicin is corrosive and damages tissue.
  2. Capsaicin contains large quantities of heat that are released upon ingestion.
  3. Capsaicin and warm receptors open the same calcium channels.
  4. Capsaicin stimulates Krause end bulbs.

_____are mechanoreceptors that facilitate proper gripping of objects.

  1. Merkel’s disks
  2. Meissner’s corpuscles
  3. Ruffini endings
  4. Pacinian corpuscles
How many different taste molecules can an individual taste cell detect?
  1. one
  2. five
  3. depends on the type of taste receptor
  4. depends on the part of the tongue
Describe how gustation and olfaction are similar.
  1. Both sense different stimuli in the environment.
  2. Both can have hundreds of millions of types of receptors.
  3. Both obtain stimuli from within the body.
  4. Signals from both are transmitted through the medulla.

________ is the term for savoriness in food.

  1. gustation
  2. tastants
  3. umami
  4. pheromone
If an individual becomes repeatedly poisoned from eating spoiled food, what kind of receptors might they lack?
  1. salty
  2. sweet
  3. umami
  4. sour
A typical dog has approximately how many times more olfactory receptors than a typical human?
  1. 2
  2. 8
  3. 83
  4. 333
Which of the following is true of dog olfaction?
  1. Most dogs have 4 billion olfactory receptors.
  2. Bloodhounds have more receptors than humans, but humans have more receptors than most dogs.
  3. Rabbits and most dogs have the same number of olfactory receptors.
  4. Dogs bred for sense of smell can have four times more olfactory cells than most other dogs.
Which of the following has the most taste receptors?
  1. fungiform papillae
  2. circumvallate papillae
  3. foliate papillae
  4. filiform papillae

In sound, pitch is measured in ________, and volume is measured in ________.

  1. decibels (dB), hertz (Hz)
  2. decibels (dB), nanometers (nm)
  3. nanometers (nm), decibels (dB)
  4. hertz (Hz), decibels (dB)
Identify the animal that would be affected by a 120,000 Hz sound.
  1. cat
  2. bat
  3. dolphin
  4. dog

Louder sounds have a ________ compared with softer sounds.

  1. greater amplitude
  2. lower amplitude
  3. greater frequency
  4. lower frequency
Which of the following is true of frequency?
  1. Frequency is heard as volume.
  2. Louder sounds have a higher frequency.
  3. Men hear higher frequencies than women.
  4. Frequency is measured in number of sound waves per unit time.

The ________ contains receptors for transduction of mechanical waves to produce electrical signals.

  1. tympanum
  2. cochlea
  3. pinna
  4. stapes

The ________ contains ________, which produces action potentials along the auditory nerve.

  1. incus, stapes
  2. ear canal, tympanum
  3. tympanum, oval window
  4. organ of Corti, stereocilia
Identify the structure that is found both in the auditory system and the vestibular system.
  1. basilar membrane
  2. hair cells
  3. semicircular canals
  4. ossicles
You are in a car that suddenly decelerates. Explain what happens inside the ear as the car comes to a stop.
  1. Fluid in the semicircular canals moves.
  2. Stereocilia are bent.
  3. Deceleration signals are sent to the brain.
  4. Fluid in the semicircular canals stops moving.

Of the following, identify the waves with the highest frequency.

  1. microwaves
  2. ultraviolet rays
  3. X-rays
  4. gamma rays
Of the following colors, identify the color associated with the shortest wavelength.
  1. red
  2. yellow
  3. green
  4. blue
Which of the following is true of light detection?
  1. Humans see most of the light spectrum.
  2. Light signals can pass through a vacuum into the eye.
  3. Decibels are used as the unit of wavelength.
  4. Violet light has a longer wavelength than red light.

The fovea is responsible for ________, because it has a high density of cones.

  1. night vision
  2. nearsightedness
  3. farsightedness
  4. acute vision

Explain why people over 55 years old often need reading glasses.

  1. Their cornea no longer focuses correctly.
  2. Their lens no longer focuses correctly.
  3. Their eyeball has elongated with age, causing images to focus in front of their retina.
  4. Their retina has thinned with age, making vision more difficult.
Where does some visual processing occur before information reaches the brain?
  1. cornea
  2. lens
  3. iris
  4. retina
A person catching a ball must coordinate her head and eyes. Identify the part of the brain that is helping to do this.
  1. hypothalamus
  2. superior colliculus
  3. thalamus
  4. pineal gland