Review Questions

Review Questions

The pleural cavity is part of which cavity?
  1. dorsal
  2. thoracic
  3. abdominal
  4. pericardial

A plane that divides an animal into dorsal and ventral portions is the ________ plane.

  1. sagittal
  2. midsagittal
  3. frontal
  4. transverse
What is the term for a hard covering or shell that provides protection and muscle attachment?
  1. apodeme
  2. fusiform
  3. exoskeleton
  4. endotherm
Which organism has a fusiform shape?
  1. elephant
  2. dolphin
  3. spider
  4. human
Which type of animal maintains a constant internal body temperature?
  1. endotherm
  2. ectotherm
  3. poikilotherm
  4. fusiform

Smaller endothermic animals have ________ surface area for their mass compared with larger endothermic animals.

  1. equal
  2. greater
  3. less
  4. no
What is the term for epithelial cells that are composed of multiple layers?
  1. simple
  2. stratified
  3. squamous
  4. transitional
Which type of epithelial cell is best adapted to aid diffusion?
  1. squamous
  2. cuboidal
  3. columnar
  4. transitional
Why do osteoclasts need to break down bone?
  1. to deposit bone material into the bone matrix
  2. to facilitate osteoclast persistence without using excess energy
  3. to provide access to calcium in the tissue
  4. to facilitate compact bone structure

Plasma is the ________.

  1. fibers in the blood
  2. matrix of the blood
  3. cell that phagocytizes bacteria
  4. cell that functions in response to antigens
Why is it necessary for most muscle cells to be under voluntary control?
  1. to facilitate response to local conditions of tissues
  2. to facilitate movement of bone
  3. to speed up or slow down the autonomic nervous system
  4. to facilitate movement of internal organs
Cardiac muscle contains specialized regions along the plasma membrane called intercalated discs. What is the role of intercalated discs?
  1. efficiently pass electrical impulses between cardiac cells
  2. facilitate immune response to foreign antigens
  3. cushion body organs from damage
  4. keeps blood vessels in place

The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus is the ________.

  1. axon
  2. dendrite
  3. cell body
  4. oligodendrocyte
Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes manufacture a lipid called myelin. Which statement best describes the function of this lipid?
  1. regulates the chemical environment
  2. sends input
  3. receives input
  4. improves signal transfer efficiency

Animals maintain an overall steady state of internal conditions by ________.

  1. ectothermy
  2. homeostasis
  3. basal metabolic rate
  4. standard metabolic rate

To what does the term equilibrium refer in the context of organismal homeostasis?

  1. Control mechanisms that amplify a response
  2. Control mechanisms that increase or decrease a stimulus
  3. The target point in homeostasis
  4. Body functions are maintained within a given range

What type of feedback loop pushes an organism’s physiology further away from it normal setpoints?

  1. positive-feedback loop
  2. negative-feedback loop
  3. set point
  4. receptor

When faced with a sudden drop in environmental temperature, an endothermic animal will ________.

  1. experience a substantial drop in its body temperature
  2. find a warm rock on which to bask
  3. increase muscle activity to generate heat
  4. increase fur or fat to increase insulation

Homeostasis is primarily controlled by ________ feedback loops.

  1. positive
  2. negative
  3. acclimatization
  4. receptor
Which is an example of negative feedback?
  1. lowering of blood glucose after a meal
  2. blood clotting after an injury
  3. lactation during nursing
  4. uterine contractions during labor
Which method of heat exchange occurs during direct contact between the source and the animal?
  1. radiation
  2. evaporation
  3. convection
  4. conduction

Which of the following is a strategy that may be employed by an ectotherm to immediately increase body temperature?

  1. consume more food to increase fat as insulation
  2. increase amount of vasodilation
  3. increase amount of muscle contraction
  4. sit on a warm rock