Review Questions

Review Questions

How are GMOs created?
  1. introducing recombinant DNA into an organism by any means
  2. in vitro fertilization methods
  3. mutagenesis
  4. plant breeding techniques
Which technique used to manipulate genetic material results in a significant increase in DNA or RNA fragments?
  1. gel electrophoresis
  2. nucleic acid extraction
  3. nuclear hybridization
  4. polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
What is the role of the plasmid in molecular cloning?
  1. They are used to create clones.
  2. They are used as vectors to insert genes into bacteria.
  3. They are a functional part of binary fission.
  4. They contain the circular chromosome of prokaryotic organisms.
What is meant by a recombinant DNA molecule?
  1. chimeric molecules
  2. bacteria transformed into another species
  3. molecules that have been through the PCR process
  4. the result of crossing over during cell reproduction
Bt toxin is considered to be what?
  1. a gene for modifying insect DNA
  2. an organic insecticide produced by bacteria
What is one trait of the Flavr Savr Tomato?
  1. has a better shelf life
  2. is not a variety of vine-ripened tomato in the supermarket
  3. was not created to have better flavor
  4. undergoes soft rot
What is the first step in isolating DNA?
  1. generating genomic DNA fragments with restriction endonucleases
  2. introducing recombinant DNA into an organism by any means
  3. overexpressing proteins in E. coli
  4. lysing the cells in the sample
What is genomics?
  1. Genomics is the study of entire genomes, including the complete set of genes, their nucleotide sequence and organization, and their interactions within a species and with other species.
  2. Genomics is the process of finding the locations of genes on each chromosome.
  3. Genomics is an illustration that lists genes and their location on a chromosome.
  4. Genomics is a genetic marker, a gene or sequence on a chromosome that co-segregates (shows genetic linkage) with a specific trait.
What is required in addition to a genetic linkage map to build a complete picture of the genome?
  1. a genetic marker
  2. a physical map
  3. linkage analysis of chromosomes
  4. plasmids
Genetic recombination occurs by which process?
  1. crossing over
  2. chromosome segregation
  3. independent assortment
  4. sister chromatids

Individual genetic maps in a given species are ________.

  1. genetically similar
  2. genetically identical
  3. genetically dissimilar
  4. not useful in species analysis
Information obtained by microscopic analysis of stained chromosomes is used in what procedure?
  1. cytogenetic mapping
  2. radiation hybrid mapping
  3. RFLP mapping
  4. sequence mapping
Which of the following is true about linkage analysis?
  1. It is used to create a physical map.
  2. It is based on the natural recombination process.
  3. It involves the breaking and re-joining of DNA artificially.
  4. It requires radiation hybrid mapping.
What does the chain termination method of DNA sequencing use to terminate polynucleotide elongation?
  1. Labeled dideoxynucleotide
  2. Unlabeled dideoxynucleotides
  3. Labeled deoxynucleotides
  4. Unlabeled deoxynucleotides
What sequencing technique is used to identify regions of similarity between cell types or species?
  1. dideoxy chain termination
  2. proteins, DNA, or RNA sequence alignment
  3. shotgun sequencing
  4. whole-exome sequencing
Whole-genome sequencing can be used for advances in what field?
  1. bioinformatics
  2. iron industry
  3. multimedia
  4. the medical field

Sequencing an individual person's genome ________.

  1. is currently impossible
  2. will not lead to legal issues regarding discrimination and privacy
  3. will not help make informed choices about medical treatment
Genomics can be used in agriculture to do what?
  1. generate new hybrid strains
  2. improve disease resistance
  3. improve yield
  4. improve yield and resistance and generate hybrids
What are the uses of metagenomics?
  1. identification of biofuels
  2. testing for multiple drug susceptibility in a population
  3. use in increasing agricultural yields
  4. identifying new species more rapidly and analyzing the effect of pollutants on the environment
Genomics can be used on a personal level to do what?
  1. determine the risks of genetic diseases for an individual’s children
  2. increase transplant rejection
  3. predict the career success of a person
  4. produce antibodies for an antigen
What is the percentage of single gene defects causing disease in developed countries?
  1. 0.05
  2. 0.1
  3. 0.2
  4. 0.4
The rapid identification of new species and the analysis of the effect of pollutants on the environment is a function of what?
  1. metagenomics
  2. linkage analysis
  3. genomics
  4. shotgun sequencing

The risks of genetic diseases for an individual’s children can be determined through ________.

  1. metagenomics
  2. linkage analysis
  3. genomics
  4. shotgun sequencing
What is a biomarker?
  1. the color coding of different genes
  2. a protein uniquely produced in a diseased state
  3. a molecule in the genome or proteome
  4. a marker that is genetically inherited
What is a metabolome?
  1. a provisional listing of the genome of a species
  2. a unique metabolite used to identify an individual
  3. a method used for protein analysis
  4. the complete set of metabolites related to the genetic makeup of an organism
How would you describe a set of proteins with altered expression levels?
  1. a group of biomarkers
  2. a protein signature
  3. the result of a defect in mRNA transcription
  4. the results of crossing over during cell replication
What is a protein signature?
  1. a protein expressed on the cell surface
  2. a unique set of proteins present in a diseased state
  3. the path followed by a protein after it is synthesized in the nucleus
  4. the path followed by a protein in the cytoplasm
What word describes a protein that is uniquely produced in a diseased state?
  1. a genomic protein
  2. a genetic defect
  3. a chimeric molecule
  4. a biomarker
The metabolites that results from the anabolic and catabolic reactions of an organisms is called what?
  1. genetic metabolic profile
  2. metabolic signature
  3. metabolome
  4. metagenomics