Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:

  • Investigate different types of microscopes
  • Learn how an image is formed in a compound microscope

The information presented in this section supports the following AP® learning objectives and science practices:

  • 6.E.5.1 The student is able to use quantitative and qualitative representations and models to analyze situations and solve problems about image formation occurring due to the refraction of light through thin lenses. (S.P. 1.4, 2.2)

Although the eye is marvelous in its ability to see objects large and small, it obviously has limitations to the smallest details it can detect. Human desire to see beyond what is possible with the naked eye led to the use of optical instruments. In this section, we will examine microscopes, instruments for enlarging the detail that we cannot see with the unaided eye. The microscope is a multiple-element system having more than a single lens or mirror (see Figure 9.15). A microscope can be made from two convex lenses. The image formed by the first element becomes the object for the second element. The second element forms its own image, which is the object for the third element, and so on. Ray tracing helps to visualize the image formed. If the device is composed of thin lenses and mirrors that obey the thin lens equations, then it is not difficult to describe their behavior numerically.

Image of a man viewing through the ocular lens and with his hand on the fine adjustment of the microscope.
Figure 9.15 Multiple lenses and mirrors are used in this microscope. (U.S. Navy photo by Tom Watanabe)

Microscopes were first developed in the early 1600s by eyeglass makers in The Netherlands and Denmark. The simplest compound microscope is constructed from two convex lenses as shown schematically in Figure 9.16. The first lens is called the objective lens, and has typical magnification values from to 100×.100×. In standard microscopes, the objectives are mounted such that when you switch between objectives, the sample remains in focus. Objectives arranged in this way are described as parfocal. The second, the eyepiece, also referred to as the ocular, has several lenses which slide inside a cylindrical barrel. The focusing ability is provided by the movement of both the objective lens and the eyepiece. The purpose of a microscope is to magnify small objects, and both lenses contribute to the final magnification. Additionally, the final enlarged image is produced in a location far enough from the observer to be easily viewed, since the eye cannot focus on objects or images that are too close.

A ray diagram from left to right shows a virtual inverted enlarged final image of the object, a small object in upright position, a convex objective lens, inverted smaller image of the object, a large convex eye-piece and an eye on an optical axis. The object h’ is placed just outside F subscript O two, the principal focus of the objective lens. Rays from the object are passing through the objective lens, converging and forming an inverted magnified image h subscript I, which acts as an object for the e
Figure 9.16 A compound microscope composed of two lenses, an objective and an eyepiece. The objective forms a case 1 image that is larger than the object. This first image is the object for the eyepiece. The eyepiece forms a case 2 final image that is further magnified.

To see how the microscope in Figure 9.16 forms an image, we consider its two lenses in succession. The object is slightly farther away from the objective lens than its focal length fo,fo, size 12{f rSub { size 8{o} } } {} producing a case 1 image that is larger than the object. This first image is the object for the second lens, or eyepiece. The eyepiece is intentionally located so it can further magnify the image. The eyepiece is placed so that the first image is closer to it than its focal length fe.fe. size 12{f rSub { size 8{e} } } {} Thus the eyepiece acts as a magnifying glass, and the final image is made even larger. The final image remains inverted, but it is farther from the observer, making it easy to view—the eye is most relaxed when viewing distant objects and normally cannot focus closer than 25 cm. Since each lens produces a magnification that multiplies the height of the image, it is apparent that the overall magnification mm size 12{m} {} is the product of the individual magnifications:

9.12 m=mome,m=mome, size 12{m=m rSub { size 8{o} } m rSub { size 8{e} } } {}

where momo is the magnification of the objective and meme is the magnification of the eyepiece. This equation can be generalized for any combination of thin lenses and mirrors that obey the thin lens equations.

Overall Magnification

The overall magnification of a multiple-element system is the product of the individual magnifications of its elements.

Example 9.5 Microscope Magnification

Calculate the magnification of an object placed 6.20 mm from a compound microscope that has a 6.00-mm focal length objective and a 50.0-mm focal length eyepiece. The objective and eyepiece are separated by 23.0 cm.

Strategy and Concept

This situation is similar to that shown in Figure 9.16. To find the overall magnification, we must find the magnification of the objective, then the magnification of the eyepiece. This involves using the thin lens equation.


The magnification of the objective lens is given as

9.13 mo= dido,mo= dido,

where dodo size 12{d rSub { size 8{o} } } {} and didi size 12{d rSub { size 8{i} } } {} are the object and image distances, respectively, for the objective lens as labeled in Figure 9.16. The object distance is given to be do=6.20 mm,do=6.20 mm, but the image distance didi is not known. Isolating di,di, we have

9.14 1di=1fo1do,1di=1fo1do, size 12{ { {1} over {d rSub { size 8{i} } } } = { {1} over {f rSub { size 8{o} } } } - { {1} over {d rSub { size 8{o} } } } } {}

where fofo size 12{f rSub { size 8{o} } } {} is the focal length of the objective lens. Substituting known values gives

9.15 1di=16.00 mm16.20 mm=0.00538mm.1di=16.00 mm16.20 mm=0.00538mm. size 12{ { {1} over {d rSub { size 8{i} } } } = { {1} over {6 "." "00 mm"} } - { {1} over {6 "." "20 mm"} } = { {0 "." "00538"} over {"mm"} } } {}

We invert this to find di.di. size 12{d rSub { size 8{i} } } {}

9.16 d i = 186 mm d i = 186 mm size 12{d rSub { size 8{i} } ="186 mm"} {}

Substituting this into the expression for momo size 12{m rSub { size 8{o} } } {} gives

9.17 mo=dido=186 mm6.20 mm=30.0.mo=dido=186 mm6.20 mm=30.0.

Now we must find the magnification of the eyepiece, which is given by

9.18 me=dido,me=dido, size 12{m rSub { size 8{e} } = - { {d rSub { size 8{i} } rSup { size 8{'} } } over {d rSub { size 8{o} } rSup { size 8{'} } } } } {}

where didi size 12{d rSub { size 8{i} rSup { size 8{'} } } } {} and dodo size 12{d rSub { size 8{o} rSup { size 8{'} } } } {} are the image and object distances for the eyepiece (see Figure 9.16). The object distance is the distance of the first image from the eyepiece. Since the first image is 186 mm to the right of the objective and the eyepiece is 230 mm to the right of the objective, the object distance is do=230 mm186 mm=44.0 mm.do=230 mm186 mm=44.0 mm. This places the first image closer to the eyepiece than its focal length, so that the eyepiece will form a case 2 image as shown in the figure. We still need to find the location of the final image didi in order to find the magnification. This is done as before to obtain a value for 1/di1/di size 12{ {1} slash {d rSub { size 8{i} rSup { size 8{'} } } } } {}

9.19 1di=1fe1do=150.0 mm144.0 mm=0.00273mm.1di=1fe1do=150.0 mm144.0 mm=0.00273mm. size 12{ { {1} over {d rSub { size 8{i} } rSup { size 8{'} } } } = { {1} over {f rSub { size 8{e} } } } - { {1} over {d rSub { size 8{o} } rSup { size 8{'} } } } = { {1} over {"50" "." "0 mm"} } - { {1} over {"44" "." "0 mm"} } = - { {0 "." "00273"} over {"mm"} } } {}

Inverting gives

9.20 di=mm0.00273=367 mm.di=mm0.00273=367 mm. size 12{d rSub { size 8{i} } rSup { size 8{'} } = - { {"mm"} over {0 "." "00273"} } = - "367 mm"} {}

The eyepiece’s magnification is thus

9.21 me=dido=367 mm44.0 mm=8.33.me=dido=367 mm44.0 mm=8.33. size 12{m rSub { size 8{e} } = - { {d rSub { size 8{i} } rSup { size 8{'} } } over {d rSub { size 8{o} } rSup { size 8{'} } } } = - { { - "367 mm"} over {"44" "." "0 mm"} } =8 "." "33"} {}

So the overall magnification is

9.22 m=mome=(30.0)(8.33)=250.m=mome=(30.0)(8.33)=250. size 12{m=m rSub { size 8{o} } m rSub { size 8{e} } = \( - "30" "." 0 \) \( 8 "." "33" \) = - "250"} {}


Both the objective and the eyepiece contribute to the overall magnification, which is large and negative, consistent with Figure 9.16, where the image is seen to be large and inverted. In this case, the image is virtual and inverted, which cannot happen for a single element—case 2 and case 3 images for single elements are virtual and upright. The final image is 367 mm (0.367 m) to the left of the eyepiece. Had the eyepiece been placed farther from the objective, it could have formed a case 1 image to the right. Such an image could be projected on a screen, but it would be behind the head of the person in the figure and not appropriate for direct viewing. The procedure used to solve this example is applicable in any multiple-element system. Each element is treated in turn, with each forming an image that becomes the object for the next element. The process is not more difficult than for single lenses or mirrors, only lengthier.

Normal optical microscopes can magnify up to 1500×1500× with a theoretical resolution of 0.2μm.0.2μm. The lenses can be quite complicated and are composed of multiple elements to reduce aberrations. Microscope objective lenses are particularly important as they primarily gather light from the specimen. Three parameters describe microscope objectives: the numerical aperture (NA)(NA), the magnification (m),(m), size 12{ \( m \) } {} and the working distance. The NANA is related to the light gathering ability of a lens and is obtained using the angle of acceptance θθ size 12{θ} {} formed by the maximum cone of rays focusing on the specimen (see Figure 9.17(a)) and is given by

9.23 NA=nsinα,NA=nsinα, size 12{ ital "NA"=n"sin"α} {}

where nn size 12{n} {} is the refractive index of the medium between the lens and the specimen and α=θ/2.α=θ/2. size 12{α= {θ} slash {2} } {} As the angle of acceptance given by θθ size 12{θ} {} increases, NANA becomes larger, and more light is gathered from a smaller focal region giving higher resolution. A 0.75-NA0.75-NA size 12{0 "." "75" ital "NA"} {} objective gives more detail than a 0.10-NA0.10-NA size 12{0 "." "10" ital "NA"} {} objective.

Part a of the figure shows a horizontal dotted line, a point P on the line and an objective lens at a distance from the point such that a triangle is formed from point P to the edges of the lens. An angle theta is shown at point P, representing the maximum cone of rays entering the lens from point P. Part b of the figure shows light rays from a specimen entering a camera lens held above it. The rays form an inverted cone.
Figure 9.17 (a) The numerical aperture (NA)(NA) of a microscope objective lens refers to the light-gathering ability of the lens and is calculated using half the angle of acceptance θ.θ. (b) Here, αα is half the acceptance angle for light rays from a specimen entering a camera lens, and DD is the diameter of the aperture that controls the light entering the lens.

While the numerical aperture can be used to compare resolutions of various objectives, it does not indicate how far the lens could be from the specimen. This is specified by the working distance, which is the distance—in mm usually—from the front lens element of the objective to the specimen, or cover glass. The higher the NANA size 12{ ital "NA"} {} the closer the lens will be to the specimen and the more chances there are of breaking the cover slip and damaging both the specimen and the lens. The focal length of an objective lens is different than the working distance. This is because objective lenses are made of a combination of lenses and the focal length is measured from inside the barrel. The working distance is a parameter that microscopists can use more readily as it is measured from the outermost lens. The working distance decreases as the NANA size 12{ ital "NA"} {} and magnification both increase.

The term f/#f/# size 12{ {f} slash {#} } {} in general is called the f-number and is used to denote the light per unit area reaching the image plane. In photography, an image of an object at infinity is formed at the focal point and the f-number is given by the ratio of the focal length ff size 12{f} {} of the lens and the diameter DD size 12{D} {} of the aperture controlling the light into the lens (see Figure 9.17(b)). If the acceptance angle is small, the NANA size 12{ ital "NA"} {} of the lens can also be used as given below:

9.24 f /# = f D 1 2 NA . f /# = f D 1 2 NA . size 12{f"/#"= { {f} over {D} } approx { {1} over {2 ital "NA"} } } {}

As the f-number decreases, the camera is able to gather light from a larger angle, giving wide-angle photography. As usual there is a trade-off. A greater f/#f/# size 12{ {f} slash {#} } {} means less light reaches the image plane. A setting of f/16f/16 size 12{ {f} slash {"16"} } {} usually allows one to take pictures in bright sunlight as the aperture diameter is small. In optical fibers, light needs to be focused into the fiber. Figure 9.18 shows the angle used in calculating the NANA size 12{ ital "NA"} {} of an optical fiber.

Image of a multimode optical fiber in the form of a rectangle is shown. From the edges two diverging lines are coming out, forming the full acceptance angle. A ray of light below the optical axis is entering the fiber. Half of the acceptance angle is shown as alpha max. Inside the fiber, the ray of light strikes the cladding around the fiber and is reflected back into the fiber.
Figure 9.18 Light rays enter an optical fiber. The numerical aperture of the optical fiber can be determined by using the angle αmax.αmax.

Can the NANA size 12{ ital "NA"} {} be larger than 1.00? The answer is yes if we use immersion lenses in which a medium such as oil, glycerine, or water is placed between the objective and the microscope cover slip. This minimizes the mismatch in refractive indices as light rays go through different media, generally providing a greater light-gathering ability and an increase in resolution. Figure 9.19 shows light rays when using air and immersion lenses.

Diagram of paths of light from a specimen and refracting through air, water, and oil.
Figure 9.19 Light rays from a specimen entering the objective. Paths for immersion medium of air (a), water (b) (n=1.33),(n=1.33), size 12{ \( n=1 "." "33" \) } {} and oil (c) (n=1.51)(n=1.51) size 12{ \( n=1 "." "51" \) } {} are shown. The water and oil immersions allow more rays to enter the objective, increasing the resolution.

When using a microscope, we do not see the entire extent of the sample. Depending on the eyepiece and objective lens, we see a restricted region which we say is the field of view. The objective is then manipulated in two-dimensions above the sample to view other regions of the sample. Electronic scanning of either the objective or the sample is used in scanning microscopy. The image formed at each point during the scanning is combined using a computer to generate an image of a larger region of the sample at a selected magnification.

When using a microscope, we rely on gathering light to form an image. Hence, most specimens need to be illuminated, particularly at higher magnifications, when observing details that are so small that they reflect only small amounts of light. To make such objects easily visible, the intensity of light falling on them needs to be increased. Special illuminating systems called condensers are used for this purpose. The type of condenser that is suitable for an application depends on how the specimen is examined, whether by transmission, scattering or reflecting. See Figure 9.20 for an example of each. White light sources are common and lasers are often used. Laser light illumination tends to be quite intense and it is important to ensure that the light does not result in the degradation of the specimen.

All four parts show ray diagrams of a specimen in different types of microscopes. Part a shows a ray diagram with rays through a condenser lens to the object and then up to the objective lens of the microscope. Part b shows an alternative arrangement where rays of light are reflected off a concave condenser mirror to the specimen and then up to the objective lens of the microscope. Part c shows dark field illumination where the illuminating light beam is fragmented by an annular stop so that its rays only
Figure 9.20 Illumination of a specimen in a microscope. (a) Transmitted light from a condenser lens. (b) Transmitted light from a mirror condenser. (c) Dark field illumination by scattering—the illuminating beam misses the objective lens. (d) High magnification illumination with reflected light—normally laser light.

We normally associate microscopes with visible light but X-ray and electron microscopes provide greater resolution. The focusing and basic physics is the same as that just described, even though the lenses require different technology. The electron microscope requires vacuum chambers so that the electrons can proceed unheeded. Magnifications of 50 million times provide the ability to determine positions of individual atoms within materials. An electron microscope is shown in Figure 9.21. We do not use our eyes to form images; rather, images are recorded electronically and displayed on computers. In fact, observing and saving images formed by optical microscopes on computers is now done routinely. Video recordings of what occurs in a microscope can be made for viewing by many people at later dates. Physics provides the science and tools needed to generate the sequence of time-lapse images of meiosis similar to the sequence sketched in Figure 9.22.

Image depicts a man using scanning electron microscope.
Figure 9.21 An electron microscope has the capability to image individual atoms on a material. The microscope uses vacuum technology, sophisticated detectors, and state-of-the-art image processing software. (Dave Pape)
The figure gives an artist's view of different stages of meiosis.
Figure 9.22 The image shows a sequence of events that takes place during meiosis. (PatríciaR, Wikimedia Commons; National Center for Biotechnology Information)

Take-Home Experiment: Make a Lens

Look through a clear glass or plastic bottle and describe what you see. Now fill the bottle with water and describe what you see. Use the water bottle as a lens to produce the image of a bright object and estimate the focal length of the water bottle lens. How is the focal length a function of the depth of water in the bottle?