## Test Prep for AP® Courses

45.
Cell metabolism is a complex process that uses many types of chemicals in a variety of processes. Which of the following statements is true?
1. A loss of free nucleotides would result in cancer.
2. A loss of assorted carbohydrates would result in mitosis.
3. A loss of triglycerides would result in cell death.
4. A loss of enzymes would result in cell death.
46.
Which pair of descriptors of chemical reactions go together?
1. anabolic and exergonic
2. exergonic and dehydration synthesis
3. endergonic and catabolic
4. hydrolysis and exergonic
47.
What is the underlying principle that supports the idea that all living organisms share the same core processes and features?
1. All organisms must harvest energy from their environment and convert it to ATP to carry out cellular functions.
2. Plants produce their own energy and pass it on to animals.
3. Herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores coexist for the survival of all.
4. Glucose is the primary source of energy for all cellular functions.
48.

It has been accepted that life on Earth started out as single-celled, simple organisms, which then evolved into complex organisms. How did evolution proceed to produce such a wide variety of living organisms from a simple ancestor?

1. Prokaryotes produced the fungi, then the protists, which then branched to plants and animals.
2. Protists evolved first, then the prokaryotes, which branched into the fungi, plants, and animals
3. Prokaryotes produced the protists, which branched into the fungi, plants, and animals.
4. Prokaryotes produced the protists, then the fungi, which branched into the plants and animals.
49.
Glucose is the sugar most often used in metabolism by the majority of cells on Earth. It is made and used by plants as well as other organisms. Which of the following describes the chemical breakdown of glucose, and what is the name of the chemical process involved in this breakdown?
1. cellular respiration: $C6H12O6+6O2→6CO2+6H2O+energy$
2. photosynthesis: $6CO2+6H2O+energy→C6H12O6+6O2$
3. electrolysis: $C4H8O4+6O2→6CO2+6H2O+energy$
4. Krebs cycle: $6CO2+6H2S+energy→C6H12O6+6O2$
50.

Plants make glucose through a pathway called photosynthesis. The amount of energy captured from light can be expressed as the number of energy containing molecules used to make one molecule of glucose. Which of the following best states the number of each molecule needed?

1. 54 molecules of ATP and 18 molecules of NADPH
2. 18 molecules of ATP and 12 molecules of NADPH
3. 24 molecules of ATP and 18 molecules of NADPH
4. 12 molecules of ATP and 18 molecules of NADPH
51.
What is an anabolic pathway? Which of these is an example of an anabolic pathway used by cells in their metabolism?
1. Anabolic pathways involve the breakdown of nutrient molecules into usable forms. An example is the harvesting of amino acids from dietary proteins.
2. Anabolic pathways involve the breakdown of nutrient molecules into useable forms. An example is the use of glycogen by the liver to maintain blood glucose levels.
3. Anabolic pathways build new molecules out of the products of catabolic pathways. An example is the separation of fatty acids from triglycerides to satisfy energy needs.
4. Anabolic pathways build new molecules out of the products of catabolic pathways. An example is the linkage of nucleotides to form a molecule of mRNA.
52.

If glucose is broken down through aerobic respiration, a number of ATP molecules can be made from the energy extracted. How many molecules of ATP are possible?

1. 2 to 4
2. 36 to 38
3. 10 to 12
4. 24 to 30
53.
Plants must have adequate resources to complete their functions. If they do not have what they need, there are changes in the organism’s metabolism. What happens to the metabolism of a plant that does not have adequate sunlight?
1. Photosynthesis slows and less glucose is produced for energy use.
2. The plant switches to anaerobic metabolism.
3. The plant goes into a dormant state until the sunlight returns.
4. The plant flowers quickly to reproduce while it can.
54.

Water deficiency is arguably the easiest deficiency to detect in plants. This is because plants that lack water will wilt, as water within the plant’s cells helps to support the plant’s weight. Plant cells become water deficient because their cells use the water for metabolic processes. What happens to the metabolism of a plant that does not have adequate water?

1. Photosynthesis is inhibited, less glucose is produced, and water used by the cells is not replaced.
2. The plant increases its breakdown of glucose to create more water at the end of the process.
3. The plant will stop photosynthesizing for long periods of time until it has enough water to do so.
4. The cell will bring in more carbon dioxide to compensate for the lack of water, allowing glucose synthesis to continue.
55.

Enzymes facilitate chemical reactions that result in changes to a substrate. How does the induced fit model of enzymes and substrates explain their function?

1. Both enzymes and substrates undergo dynamic changes, inducing the transitions state of the substrate.
2. The enzyme induces a change in the substrate, but is not changed itself during the reaction.
3. The substrates attach to the enzyme and the chemical reaction proceeds.
4. The enzyme changes shape to fit the substrate, causing the transition state to occur.
56.

Enzyme inhibitors play an important part in the control of enzyme functions, allowing them to continue, or inhibiting them for a period of time. Which inhibitor affects the initial rate, but does not affect the maximal rate?

1. allosteric
2. competitive
3. non-competitive
4. uncompetitive