Fluency is the ability to read text effortlessly, allowing the reader to concentrate on meaning.
Fluency includes reading accurately, quickly, and with prosody (appropriate phrasing, expression, and attention to punctuation).
Fluency instruction should use appealing text—both familiar and novel—at students’ independent and instructional levels. Independent-level texts are those in which no more than 1 in 20 words is difficult for the reader. Instructional-level texts are those in which no more than 1 in 10 words is difficult for the reader. Direct instruction should occur for high-frequency words and for reading with accuracy and prosody. Students should be provided many opportunities to practice reading and engaging with text, both through silent reading and oral reading.
These fluency activities are designed to enhance the instruction of all teachers of reading and to meet the learning needs of all students, as indicated by data.