Review Questions

1.
Which type of skeletal system of animals is formed by the pressure exerted by the aqueous contents of the coelom on surrounding organs?
  1. hydrostatic skeleton
  2. exoskeleton
  3. axial skeleton
  4. appendicular skeleton
2.
The skeletal system is necessary to support the body, protect internal organs, and allow movement. Which of the following organisms must shed and then regenerate its skeletal system as it grows?
  1. earthworm
  2. lobster
  3. snake
  4. sea anemone
3.
Which of the following is a role of the human vertebral column?
  1. to protect the heart and lungs
  2. to support the head
  3. to attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton
  4. to permit locomotion
4.
Abnormalities of the thoracic cage are relatively rare, but when they exist they can cause disorders. Which of the following would most be at risk if someone had a defective thoracic cage?
  1. middle ear
  2. brain
  3. spinal cord
  4. heart
5.
Which type of skeletal system of animals is composed of a hard skeletal layer found on the exterior of the organism?
  1. hydrostatic skeleton
  2. exoskeleton
  3. axial skeleton
  4. appendicular skeleton
6.
Which type of organism moves by peristaltic muscle contraction, extending its body in one direction, then shortening and pulling itself along a surface?
  1. ants
  2. lizards
  3. sea stars
  4. sponges
7.

The cells responsible for bone resorption are________.

  1. osteoclasts
  2. osteoblasts
  3. fibroblasts
  4. osteocytes
8.
The bones of human skeletons are classified by their shape. How does the structure of sesamoid bones differ from that of short bones?
  1. Sesamoid bones are small and flat, whereas short bones are approximately equal in height and width.
  2. Sesamoid bones are thin and broad, whereas short bones have a central shaft and two ends.
  3. Sesamoid bones are small, flat, and irregularly shaped, whereas short bones are cuboidal in shape.
  4. Sesamoid bones are thin and broad, whereas short bones are small and flat.
9.
A patient was diagnosed with low calcium levels in the blood, which affect nervous system and muscle functions. You decide to examine the functioning of various cells composing the patient’s bone tissue.
 
Which type of bone cell do you predict may be dysfunctional?
  1. Osteoclasts
  2. Osteoblasts
  3. Osteoprogenitor cells
  4. Osteocytes
10.
Which of the following bones or bone structures forms primarily due to endochondral ossification?
  1. skull
  2. clavicle
  3. mandible
  4. femur
11.

Synchondroses and symphyses are connected by ________.

  1. fibers
  2. synovial fluid
  3. cartilage
  4. condyloid
12.

________ is a characteristic of the synovial fluid.

  1. Stability
  2. Lubrication
  3. Minor movement
  4. Increase of friction
13.

Synovial joints allow different types of movement. Turning your head to look over your shoulder is an example of ________.

  1. abduction
  2. medial rotation
  3. lateral rotation
  4. adduction
14.
Which of the following is an example of a pivot joint?
  1. elbow
  2. thumb
  3. hip
  4. the joint of the wrist
15.

________ muscles are also called voluntary muscles.

  1. Cardiac
  2. Smooth
  3. Connective
  4. Skeletal
16.

Which of the following best describes a function of smooth muscle tissue?

  1. It affects the flow of blood and blood pressure.
  2. It stimulates contraction of the heart.
  3. It changes your facial expression.
  4. It maintains your posture.
17.

In relaxed muscle, the myosin binding site on actin is blocked by ________.

  1. ATP
  2. tropomyosin
  3. the cross-bridge
  4. troponin
18.

The small structures that make up myofibrils are called ________.

  1. sarcolemma
  2. myosins
  3. myofilaments
  4. sarcomeres
19.
Which of the following statements does not accurately describe muscle contraction?
  1. During muscle contraction, the sarcomere shortens.
  2. During muscle contraction, the thick and thin filaments shorten.
  3. During muscle contraction, the H zone shortens.
  4. During muscle contraction, the A band does not shorten.