During the most recent recession, some economists argued that the change in the interest rates that comes about as a result of deficit spending implied in the demand and supply of financial capital graph would not occur. A simple reason was that the government was stepping in to invest when private firms were not. Using a graph, explain how the deficit demand is offset by the use by government in investment.


Illustrate the concept of Ricardian equivalence using demand and supply in a financial capital graph.


Sketch a diagram of how a budget deficit causes a trade deficit. Hint—Begin with what happens to the exchange rate when foreigners demand more U.S. government debt.


Sketch a diagram of how sustained budget deficits cause low economic growth.


Assume you are employed by the government of Tanzania in 1964, a new nation recently independent from Britain. The Tanzanian parliament has decided it will spend 10 million shillings on schools, roads, and healthcare for the year. You estimate that the net taxes for the year are eight million shillings. The difference will be financed by selling 10-year government bonds at 12 percent interest per year. The interest on outstanding bonds must be added to government expenditure each year. Assume that additional taxes are added to finance this increase in government expenditure so the gap between government spending is always two million. If the school, road, and healthcare budget are unchanged, compute the value of the accumulated debt in 10 years.