### Preface

This instructional material is provided through a Texas Education Agency (TEA) initiative to provide high-quality open-source instructional materials to districts free of charge. Funds were allocated for the open-source instructional materials by the 84th Texas Legislature (2015). This legislature directed the agency to set aside $5,000,000 from the state instructional materials fund in each fiscal year of the biennium for state-developed, open-source instructional materials and specified that the request should prioritize advanced secondary courses supporting the study of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Through a request for proposal (RFP) process, the agency called for materials in the following sets of courses:

- High school math courses identified in Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Title 19, Chapter 111 (http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter111/index.html)
- High school science courses identified in 19 TAC, Chapter 112 (http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter112/index.html)
- High school technology applications courses identified in 19 TAC, Chapter 126 (http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter126/index.html)
- Career and technical education (CTE) courses identified in 19 TAC, Chapter 130, Subchapter O (http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter130/ch130o.html)

The RFP resulted in the award of two contracts for open-source materials, one to OpenStax (Rice University) and one to Study Edge (University of Florida).

OpenStax created materials for seven courses:

- Statistics
- Advanced Placement Macroeconomics
- Advanced Placement Microeconomics
- Advanced Placement Physics 1
- Advanced Placement Physics 2
- Physics
- Advanced Placement Biology

Each set of materials created by OpenStax is organized into units and chapters and can be used like a traditional textbook as the entire syllabus for each course. They can also be accessed in smaller chunks for more focused use with a single student or an entire class. All materials are available free of charge through the Texas Gateway.

Qualified and experienced Texas faculty were involved throughout the development proces, and the textbooks were reviewed extensively to ensure effectiveness and usability in each course. Reviewers considered each resource’s clarity, accuracy, student support, assessment rigor and appropriateness, alignment to TEKS, and overall quality. Their invaluable suggestions provided the basis for continually improved material and helped to certify that the books are ready for use. The writers and reviewers also considered common course issues, effective teaching strategies, and student engagement to provide instructors and students with useful, supportive content and drive effective learning experiences.

#### Instructional Support Ancillaries for TEA Statistics

The following materials are available to support instruction of TEA Statistics:

- TEA Statistics PowerPoint Slides
- TEA Statistics Instructor’s Solution Manual
- TEA Statistics Alignment Map

If you are an instructor and want to obtain these ancillaries, please use your official school email to send a request to the TEA using the following email address:

open-sourceinstructionalmaterials@tea.texas.gov

Please include information about the title for which you need ancillary materials.

#### About Statistics

*Statistics* covers the scope and sequence requirements of a typical one-year statistics course. The text provides comprehensive coverage of statistical concepts, including quantitative examples, collaborative activities, and practical applications. High School Statistics was designed to meet and exceed the requirements of the relevant Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), while allowing significant flexibility for instructors.

Content requirements for *Statistics* are prescribed in “Chapter 111. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Mathematics, Subchapter C. High School, 111.47. Statistics, Adopted 2015” (http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter111/ch111c.html#111.47).

#### Coverage and Scope

Statistics presents the appropriate statistical concepts and skills in a logical and engaging progression that should be familiar to faculty.

Chapter 1: Sampling and Data

Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

Chapter 3: Probability Topics

Chapter 4: Discrete Random Variables

Chapter 5: Continuous Random Variables

Chapter 6: The Normal Distribution

Chapter 7: The Central Limit Theorem

Chapter 8: Confidence Intervals

Chapter 9: Hypothesis Testing with One Sample

Chapter 10: Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples

Chapter 11: The Chi-Square Distribution

Chapter 12: Linear Regression and Correlation

Chapter 13: F Distribution and One-Way ANOVA

#### Pedagogical Foundation and Features

*Statistics* was developed with detailed and practical guidance from experienced high school teachers and curriculum experts. Their contributions helped create a textbook that provides easy-to-follow explanations with ample opportunities for enrichment and practice. In addition to clear and grade-level appropriate main text coverage, the following features are meant to enhance student understanding of Statistics:

**Examples**are placed strategically throughout the text to show students the step-by-step process of interpreting and solving statistical problems. To keep the text relevant for students, the examples are drawn from a broad spectrum of practical topics, including examples about college life and learning, health and medicine, retail and business, and sports and entertainment.**Try It**practice problems immediately follow many examples and give students the opportunity to practice as they read the text. Like the Examples, the Try It problems are usually based on practical and familiar topics.**Collaborative Exercises**provide an in-class scenario for students to work together and learn from each other as they explore course concepts.**Calculator Guidance**shows students step-by-step instructions for input using the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ calculators and helps them consider how to use these tools in their studies. The Technology Icon indicates where the use of a TI calculator or computer software is recommended.**Practice, Homework**, and**Bringing It Together**problems give the students problems at various degrees of difficulty while including real-world scenarios to engage students.

#### Statistics Labs

These innovative activities were developed by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean (both of De Anza College) and allow students to design, implement, and interpret statistical analyses. They are drawn from actual experiments and data-gathering processes and offer a unique hands-on and collaborative experience.

Statistics Labs appear at the end of each chapter and begin with student learning outcomes, general estimates for time on task, and global implementation notes. Students are then provided with step-by-step guidance, including sample data tables and calculation prompts. This detailed assistance will help the students successfully apply statistics concepts and lay the groundwork for future collaborative or individual work.

#### Reviewers

**Linda Gann, John Marshall High School**

Linda Gann has taught mathematics and statistics for over twenty-five years a Northside ISD, and currently serves as the district’s Secondary Mathematics Instructional Specialist. She was awarded the Presidential Award for Excellence in Teaching, the Radio Shack National Teacher Award, the HEB Teaching Excellence Award (State Finalist), and the AP Siemens Award. For many years, Linda worked for the College Board as a consultant for AP Calculus AB, BC, and Statistics, and as a reader for AP Statistics. She has also served as the co-chair for the College and Career Readiness Standards for Mathematics for all three writing phases. Her educational background consists of a B.S. in Mathematics from Illinois State University and an M.S. in Mathematics from the University of Texas, San Antonio. Additionally, she is nearing completion of her Ph.D. in Interdisciplinary of Learning and Teaching from UTSA. She presently serves as president of the Alamo District Council of Teachers of Mathematics and scholarship chair for the Priest Holmes Foundation.

**Wendy Martinez, Cedar Park High School**

Wendy Martinez has been a teacher since 1994. She currently teaches PreAP Geometry and on-level Statistics at Cedar Park High School in Leander ISD. She has taught at Rouse High School, Lake Travis High School, and Pflugerville Middle School.

**Alexander Teich, Spring Woods High School**

Alexander Teich has taught math and statistics courses for more than twelve years. Currently working at Spring Woods High School, has has previously taught in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He also sponsors the Spring Woods Chess Club, and has a wealth of varied practical experience outside the classroom.

**Amanda Yowell, Pleasant Grove High School**

Amanda Yowell earned a Bachelors of Science in Business Administration and Finance from the University of Arkansas and worked in Financial Management. For the past six years, however, she has been teaching Mathematics classes at Pleasant Grove High School in Texarkana, TX. In her free time, she enjoys spending time with her husband of 22 years and their three children.