# Engage: Earth in Motion

Have you ever wondered how fast Earth travels around the Sun or how far Earth travels in 1 year?

**View the following video to find answer to these questions.**

Let us discuss the questions above. Record your answers in your science notebook.

How fast does Earth travel around the Sun? According to the video, Earth travels approximately _________ kilometers per second.

Now, for the second question, how far does Earth travel in 1 year? According to the video, if we use the approximate measurement of Earth’s orbit, you can say that Earth travels approximately _______ km in 1 year.

But do you know that you can argue that Earth travels 0 kilometers in 1 year? You definitely can! It will all depend on how you defend your answer.

If you want to find out how, move on and explore it.

# Explore 1: How Far Have I Gone?

There is a difference between how far an object traveled and how far the object is from its original position.

**Watch the video below and answer the questions that follow.**

Answer the following questions in your science notebook.

1. How far did this car travel?

2. How far is this car from its original position?

**Now, click on the next video clip and answer the questions that follow.**

Answer the following questions in your science notebook.

3. How far did this car travel?

4. How far is this car from its original position?

# Explore 2: Graph My Movement

In this activity, you will use a simulation lab to measure how far an object traveled and how far it is from its original location when it stops. You will use the origin (coordinates 0,0) as the original location for each object.

For each movement, you will grab an arrow from the bucket. The |R| box indicates the measurement of the arrow. For the purpose of this activity, 1 unit is equal to 1 meter. Click on the arrow to get its actual measurement. To increase/decrease the measurement of the arrow and to change its direction, you have to click, hold, and drag the arrow . To combine two consecutive movements, connect the tail of the arrow that represents the second movement to the head of the arrow that represents the first movement.

To calculate how far the object traveled, add the measurement of all the movements (red arrows). To measure how far the object is from its original location, check the “Show Sum” button and when a green arrow appears, click on it to measure how far the object is from its original location.

**You may watch the video below for an example of how to manipulate the simulation lab.**

**Download the "Distance and Displacement Simulation Lab Paper" from the Related Documents.**

**Click on the picture below to start the simulation. **

# Explore 3: Who Moves the Fastest?

Fast-moving objects cover a greater distance in a shorter amount of time compared to slow-moving objects.

**Click on the “Play” button to watch how three cars differ in their motion.**

**Answer the following questions in your science notebook.**

1. In this video, which is the fastest-moving car?

2. Play the video again, but this time pause it between 5 and 6 seconds. Compare how far each car is from the starting point after a certain period of time.

3. If Car B leaves 3 seconds ahead of Car A and Car C, will Car A and Car C be able to catch up with Car B? If so, which car will catch up first? Explain your answer.

# Explain: The Science Behind Football

What do football, basketball, soccer, hockey, swimming, car racing, and other sports have in common? If you answered “Science,” you are correct. Sports involve movement, and science is always behind moving objects.

**Watch the video below and see for yourself how science is involved in football.**

**Answer the following questions in your science notebook.**

1. In your own words, compare distance and displacement.

2. How would you define speed?

3. What is acceleration?

# Elaborate 1: Calculating Average Speed

A fast-moving object covers greater distance in a shorter amount of time compared to a slow-moving object.

In this activity, you will calculate and compare how fast each car moved in the three videos below. The average speed during the course of motion is calculated using the following formula:

$AverageSpeed=\frac{Dis\mathrm{tan}ceTraveled}{TimeofTravel}$

or

$s=\frac{d}{t}$

**Click on the play button to watch each video and then use the correct formula to calculate and compare how fast they moved. Show your calculations and record your final answer in your science notebook.**

**After calculating the speed of each car from the videos above, answer the following questions in your science notebook.**

1. Which of the three cars moved the slowest?

2. Did any of the three cars have the same velocity? Explain your answer.

# Elaborate 2: Calculating Acceleration

Acceleration is the rate at which an object changes its velocity. Any object that changes its velocity (whether speeding up or slowing down) is accelerating. To calculate acceleration, we use the following equation.

$Acceleration=\frac{FinalVelocity-InitialVelociy}{time}$

or

$a=\frac{{v}_{f}-{v}_{i}}{t}$

**To retake the quiz, reload the page and then select "No" when the "Resume Quiz" dialog box appears**

# Evaluate: Motion Test

Take the quiz to check your understanding about distance, displacement, speed and acceleration. To retake the quiz, reload the page and then select "No" when the "Resume Quiz" dialog box appears.

# Teacher Notes

This resource is a collection of interactive materials, videos, and other digital media assembled in a conceptually scaffolded 5E lesson format. It provides alternative or additional tier-one learning options for students learning about distance, displacement, speed, and acceleration—IPC TEKS (4)(A). The assignments require student participation with self-checked and teacher-checked formative assessment opportunities. For example, after students record observations and data in their notebooks, they may be prompted to be prepared to share their answers with the class.

Review the resource before assigning it to your students to check for prerequisite knowledge, differentiation needs, and student follow-up requirements as necessary. Students will need a science notebook or something in which to record their responses.

**Resource Map**

5E Cycle |
Activity Title |
Student Outcome |
Follow-up |

ENGAGE |
Earth in Motion |
Visualize how far and how fast Earth travels in 1 year. Recall how to write scientific notation. |
Emphasize that measurements used are approximate. Explain that how fast and how far an object traveled depend on the perspective of the observer. |

EXPLORE 1 |
How Far Have I Gone? | Differentiate how far an object traveled and how far an object is from its original position. | Debrief the difference between how far an object traveled and how far the object is from its original position. Provide additional examples. |

EXPLORE 2 |
Graph My Movement | Model the movement of objects using vectors in the simulation lab activity. | Recall the concept of scalar and vector quantity. |

EXPLORE 3 |
Who Moves the Fastest? | Compare the distance covered by the cars A, B, and C after a certain period of time. | Debrief that fast-moving objects cover greater distance than slow-moving objects. |

EXPLAIN |
The Science Behind Football | Define/describe distance, displacement, speed, and acceleration. | Debrief the different terminologies. |

ELABORATE 1 |
Calculating Speed | Calculate the average speed of moving objects using the formula $s=\frac{d}{t}$ | Show all calculations and correct rounding of answers, and provide correct units for the answers. |

ELABORATE 2 |
Calculating Acceleration | Calculate acceleration using the formula $a=\frac{{v}_{f}-{v}_{i}}{t}$ | Show all calculations and correct rounding of answers, and provide correct units for the answers. |

EVALUATE |
Motion Test | Describe and calculate the concepts of distance, displacement, speed, and acceleration. | Self-check for understanding. |

**Critical Vocabulary**

Scalar Quantity

Vector Quantity

Distance

Displacement

Speed

Acceleration

Velocity