Key Terms

Key Terms

antidumping laws
laws that block imports sold below the cost of production and impose tariffs that would increase the price of these imports to reflect their cost of production
common market
economic agreement between countries to allow free trade in goods, services, labor, and financial capital between members while having a common external trade policy
disruptive market change
innovative new product or production technology which disrupts the status quo in a market, leading the innovators to earn more income and profits and the other firms to lose income and profits, unless they can come up with their own innovations
selling internationally traded goods below their cost of production
economic union
economic agreement between countries to allow free trade between members, a common external trade policy, and coordinated monetary and fiscal policies
free trade agreement
economic agreement between countries to allow free trade between members
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
forum in which nations could come together to negotiate reductions in tariffs and other barriers to trade; the precursor to the World Trade Organization
import quotas
numerical limits on the quantity of products that can be imported
national interest argument
the argument that there are compelling national interests against depending on key imports from other nations
nontariff barriers
ways a nation can draw up rules, regulations, inspections, and paperwork to make it more costly or difficult to import products
government policies to reduce or block imports
race to the bottom
when production locates in countries with the lowest environmental (or other) standards, putting pressure on all countries to reduce their environmental standards
World Trade Organization (WTO)
organization that seeks to negotiate reductions in barriers to trade and to adjudicate complaints about violations of international trade policy; successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)