Key Terms

Key Terms

adverse selection
when groups with inherently higher risks than the average person seek out insurance, thus straining the insurance system
asymmetric information
a situation where the seller or the buyer has more information than the other regarding the quality of the item being sold
when an insurance policyholder pays a percentage of a loss, and the insurance company pays the remaining cost
something valuable—often property or equipment—that a lender would have a right to seize and sell if their loan is not repaid
when an insurance policyholder must pay a small amount for each service before insurance covers the rest
another person or firm who legally pledges to repay some or all of the money on a loan if the original borrower does not do so
an amount that an insurance policyholder must pay out of their own pocket before the insurance coverage pays anything
when medical care providers are paid according to the services they provide
health maintenance organization (HMO)
an organization that provides health care and is paid a fixed amount per person enrolled in the plan, regardless of how many services are provided
imperfect information
a situation where either the buyer and/or the seller are uncertain about the qualities of what is being bought and sold
a method of protecting a person from financial loss, whereby policyholders make regular payments to an insurance entity; the insurance firm then remunerates a group member who suffers significant financial damage from an event covered by the policy
money-back guarantee
a promise that the buyer’s money will be refunded under certain conditions
moral hazard
when people have insurance against a certain event, they are less likely to guard against that event occurring
occupational license
a license issued by government agencies, which indicate that a worker has completed a certain type of education or passed a certain test
a payment made to an insurance company
risk group
a group that shares roughly the same risk of an adverse event occurring
service contract
a seller agrees to fix anything specified in the contract that goes wrong for a set time period; the buyer pays an extra amount for this
a promise to fix or replace a good for a certain period of time