Key Concepts and Summary
4.1 Demand and Supply at Work in Labor Markets
In the labor market, households are on the supply side of the market and firms are on the demand side. In the market for financial capital, households and firms can be on either side of the market: They are suppliers of financial capital when they save or make financial investments, and demanders of financial capital when they borrow or receive financial investments.
In the demand and supply analysis of labor markets, the price can be measured by the annual salary or hourly wage received. The quantity of labor can be measured in various ways, like number of workers or the number of hours worked.
Factors that can shift the demand curve for labor include a change in the quantity demanded of the product that the labor produces, a change in the production process that uses more or less labor, and a change in government policy that affects the quantity of labor that firms wish to hire at a given wage. Demand can also increase or decrease (shift) in response to workers’ level of education and training, technology, the number of companies, and availability and price of other inputs.
The main factors that can shift the supply curve for labor are how desirable a job appears to workers relative to the alternatives, government policy that either restricts or encourages the quantity of workers trained for the job, the number of workers in the economy, and required education.
4.2 Demand and Supply in Financial Markets
In the demand and supply analysis of financial markets, the price is the rate of return or the interest rate received. The quantity is measured by the money that flows from those who supply financial capital to those who demand it.
Two factors can shift the supply of financial capital to a certain investment: if people want to alter their existing levels of consumption, and if the riskiness or return on one investment changes relative to other investments. Factors that can shift demand for capital include business confidence and consumer confidence in the future—since financial investments received in the present are typically repaid in the future.
4.3 The Market System as an Efficient Mechanism for Information
The market price system provides a highly efficient mechanism for disseminating information about relative scarcities of goods, services, labor, and financial capital. Market participants do not need to know why prices have changed; only that the changes require them to revisit previous decisions they made about supply and demand. Price controls hide information about the true scarcity of products and thereby cause misallocation of resources.