Homework

13.1 One-Way ANOVA

59.

Three different traffic routes are tested for mean driving time. The entries in the Table 13.18 are the driving times in minutes on the three different routes.

Route 1 Route 2 Route 3
30 27 16
32 29 41
27 28 22
35 36 31
Table 13.18

State SSbetween, SSwithin, and the F statistic.

60.

Suppose a group is interested in determining whether teenagers obtain their drivers licenses at approximately the same average age across the country. Suppose that the following data are randomly collected from five teenagers in each region of the country. The numbers represent the age at which teenagers obtained their drivers licenses.

  Northeast South West Central East
  16.3 16.9 16.4 16.2 17.1
  16.1 16.5 16.5 16.6 17.2
  16.4 16.4 16.6 16.5 16.6
  16.5 16.2 16.1 16.4 16.8
x¯=x¯= ________ ________ ________ ________ ________
s2=s2= ________ ________ ________ ________ ________
Table 13.19

State the hypotheses.

H0: ____________

Ha: ____________

13.2 The F Distribution and the F Ratio

Use the following information to answer the next three exercises. Suppose a group is interested in determining whether teenagers obtain their drivers licenses at approximately the same average age across the country. Suppose that the following data are randomly collected from five teenagers in each region of the country. The numbers represent the age at which teenagers obtained their drivers licenses.

  Northeast South West Central East
  16.3 16.9 16.4 16.2 17.1
  16.1 16.5 16.5 16.6 17.2
  16.4 16.4 16.6 16.5 16.6
  16.5 16.2 16.1 16.4 16.8
x¯=x¯= ________ ________ ________ ________ ________
s2=s2= ________ ________ ________ ________ ________
Table 13.20

H0: µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = µ4 = µ5

: At least any two of the group means µ1, µ2, …, µ5 are not equal.

61.

degrees of freedom – numerator: df(num) = _________

62.

degrees of freedom – denominator: df(denom) = ________

63.

F statistic = ________

13.3 Facts About the F Distribution

DIRECTIONS

Use a solution sheet to conduct the following hypothesis tests. The solution sheet can be found in Appendix E.

64.

Three students, Linda, Tuan, and Javier, are given five laboratory rats each for a nutritional experiment. Each rat’s weight is recorded in grams. Linda feeds her rats Formula A, Tuan feeds his rats Formula B, and Javier feeds his rats Formula C. At the end of a specified time period, each rat is weighed again, and the net gain in grams is recorded. Using a significance level of 10 percent, test the hypothesis that the three formulas produce the same mean weight gain.

 
Linda’s Rats (g) Tuan’s Rats (g) Javier’s Rats (g)
43.5 47.0 51.2
39.4 40.5 40.9
41.3 38.9 37.9
46.0 46.3 45.0
38.2 44.2 48.6
Table 13.21
65.

A grassroots group opposed to a proposed increase in the gas tax claimed that the increase would hurt working-class people the most since they commute the farthest to work. Suppose that the group randomly surveyed 24 individuals and asked them their daily one-way commuting mileage. The results are in Table 13.22. Using a 5 percent significance level, test the hypothesis that the three mean commuting mileages are the same.

Working-Class Professional (middle incomes) Professional (wealthy)
17.8 16.5 8.5
26.7 17.4 6.3
49.4 22.0 4.6
9.4 7.4 12.6
65.4 9.4 11.0
47.1 2.1 28.6
19.5 6.4 15.4
51.2 13.9 9.3
Table 13.22

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. Table 13.23 lists the number of pages in four different types of magazines.

Home Decorating News Health Computer
172 87 82 104
286 94 153 136
163 123 87 98
205 106 103 207
197 101 96 146
Table 13.23
66.

Using a significance level of 5 percent, test the hypothesis that the four magazine types have the same mean length.

67.

Eliminate one magazine type that you now feel has a mean length different from the others. Redo the hypothesis test, testing that the remaining three means are statistically the same. Use a new solution sheet. Based on this test, are the mean lengths for the remaining three magazines statistically the same?

68.

A researcher wants to know if the mean times (in minutes) that people watch their favorite news station are the same. Suppose that Table 13.24 shows the results of a study.

CNN FOX Local
45 15 72
12 43 37
18 68 56
38 50 60
23 31 51
35 22  
Table 13.24

Assume that all distributions are normal, the four population standard deviations are approximately the same, and the data were collected independently and randomly. Use a level of significance of 0.05.

69.

Are the means for the final exams the same for all statistics class delivery types? Table 13.25 shows the scores on final exams from several randomly selected classes that used the different delivery types.

Online Hybrid Face-to-Face
72 83 80
84 73 78
77 84 84
80 81 81
81   86
    79
    82
Table 13.25

Assume that all distributions are normal, the four population standard deviations are approximately the same, and the data were collected independently and randomly. Use a level of significance of 0.05.

70.

Are the mean number of times a month a person eats out the same for whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians? Suppose that Table 13.26 shows the results of a study.

White Black Hispanic Asian
6 4 7 8
8 1 3 3
2 5 5 5
4 2 4 1
6   6 7
Table 13.26

Assume that all distributions are normal, the four population standard deviations are approximately the same, and the data were collected independently and randomly. Use a level of significance of 0.05.

71.

Are the mean numbers of daily visitors to a ski resort the same for the three types of snow conditions? Suppose that Table 13.27 shows the results of a study.

Powder Machine Made Hard Packed
1,210 2,107 2,846
1,080 1,149 1,638
1,537 862 2,019
941 1,870 1,178
  1,528 2,233
  1,382  
Table 13.27

Assume that all distributions are normal, the four population standard deviations are approximately the same, and the data were collected independently and randomly. Use a level of significance of 0.05.

72.

Sanjay made identical paper airplanes out of three different weights of paper: light, medium, and heavy. He made four airplanes from each of the weights and launched them himself across the room. Here are the distances (in meters) that his planes flew.

Paper Type/Trial Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4
Heavy 5.1 meters 3.1 meters 4.7 meters 5.3 meters
Medium 4 meters 3.5 meters 4.5 meters 6.1 meters
Light 3.1 meters 3.3 meters 2.1 meters 1.9 meters
Table 13.28
the graph is a scatter plot which represents the data provided. The horizontal axis is labeled 'Distance in Meters,' and extends form 2 to 6. The vertical axis is labeled 'Weight of Paper' and has light, medium, and heavy categories.
Figure 13.8
  1. Take a look at the data in the graph. Look at the spread of data for each group (light, medium, heavy). Does it seem reasonable to assume a normal distribution with the same variance for each group?
  2. Why is this a balanced design?
  3. Calculate the sample mean and sample standard deviation for each group.
  4. Does the weight of the paper have an effect on how far the plane will travel? Use a 1 percent level of significance. Complete the test using the method shown in the bean plant example in Example 13.4.
    • Variance of the group means __________
    • MSbetween= ___________
    • Mean of the three sample variances ___________
    • MSwithin = _____________
    • F statistic = ____________
    • df(num) = __________, df(denom) = ___________
    • Number of groups _______
    • Number of observations _______
    • p-value = __________ (P(F > _______) = __________)
    • Graph the p-value.
    • Decision: _______________________
    • Conclusion: _______________________________________________________________
73.

DDT is a pesticide that has been banned from use in the United States and most other areas of the world. It is quite effective but persisted in the environment and over time proved to be harmful to higher-level organisms. Famously, egg shells of eagles and other raptors were believed to be thinner and prone to breakage in the nest because of ingestion of DDT in the food chain of the birds.

An experiment was conducted on the number of eggs (fecundity) laid by female fruit flies. There are three groups of flies. One group was bred to be resistant to DDT (the RS group). Another was bred to be especially susceptible to DDT (SS). The third group was a control line of nonselected or typical fruit flies (NS). Here are the data:

RS SS NS RS SS NS
12.8 38.4 35.4 22.4 23.1 22.6
21.6 32.9 27.4 27.5 29.4 40.4
14.8 48.5 19.3 20.3 16 34.4
23.1 20.9 41.8 38.7 20.1 30.4
34.6 11.6 20.3 26.4 23.3 14.9
19.7 22.3 37.6 23.7 22.9 51.8
22.6 30.2 36.9 26.1 22.5 33.8
29.6 33.4 37.3 29.5 15.1 37.9
416.4 26.7 228.2 38.6 31 29.5
20.3 39 23.4 44.4 16.9 42.4
29.3 12.8 33.7 23.2 16.1 36.6
914.9 14.6 29.2 23.6 10.8 47.4
27.3 12.2 41.7      
Table 13.29

The values are the average number of eggs laid daily for each of 75 flies (25 in each group) over the first 14 days of their lives. Using a 1 percent level of significance, are the mean rates of egg selection for the three strains of fruit fly different? If so, in what way? Specifically, the researchers were interested in whether the selectively bred strains were different from the nonselected line, and whether the two selected lines were different from each other.

Here is a chart of the three groups:

This graph is a scatterplot which represents the data provided. The horizontal axis is labeled 'Mean eggs laid per day' and extends from 10 - 50. The vertical axis is labeled 'Fruitflies DDT resistant or susceptible, or not selected.' The vertical axis is labeled with the categories NS, RS, SS.
Figure 13.9
74.

The data shown is the recorded body temperatures of 130 subjects as estimated from available histograms.

Traditionally, we are taught that the normal human body temperature is 98.6 °F. This is not quite correct for everyone. Are the mean temperatures among the four groups different?

Calculate 95 percent confidence intervals for the mean body temperature in each group and comment about the confidence intervals.

FL FH ML MH FL FH ML MH
96.4 96.8 96.3 96.9 98.4 98.6 98.1 98.6
96.7 97.7 96.7 97 98.7 98.6 98.1 98.6
97.2 97.8 97.1 97.1 98.7 98.6 98.2 98.7
97.2 97.9 97.2 97.1 98.7 98.7 98.2 98.8
97.4 98 97.3 97.4 98.7 98.7 98.2 98.8
97.6 98 97.4 97.5 98.8 98.8 98.2 98.8
97.7 98 97.4 97.6 98.8 98.8 98.3 98.9
97.8 98 97.4 97.7 98.8 98.8 98.4 99
97.8 98.1 97.5 97.8 98.8 98.9 98.4 99
97.9 98.3 97.6 97.9 99.2 99 98.5 99
97.9 98.3 97.6 98 99.3 99 98.5 99.2
98 98.3 97.8 98   99.1 98.6 99.5
98.2 98.4 97.8 98   99.1 98.6  
98.2 98.4 97.8 98.3   99.2 98.7  
98.2 98.4 97.9 98.4   99.4 99.1  
98.2 98.4 98 98.4   99.9 99.3  
98.2 98.5 98 98.6   100 99.4  
98.2 98.6 98 98.6   100.8    
Table 13.30

13.4 Test of Two Variances

75.

Three students, Linda, Tuan, and Javier, are given five laboratory rats each for a nutritional experiment. Each rat’s weight is recorded in grams. Linda feeds her rats Formula A, Tuan feeds his rats Formula B, and Javier feeds his rats Formula C. At the end of a specified time period, each rat is weighed again and the net gain in grams is recorded.

Linda’s Rats Tuan’s Rats Javier’s Rats
43.5 47.0 51.2
39.4 40.5 40.9
41.3 38.9 37.9
46.0 46.3 45.0
38.2 44.2 48.6
Table 13.31

Determine whether the variance in weight gain is statistically the same between Javier’s and Linda’s rats. Test at a significance level of 10 percent.

76.

A grassroots group opposed to a proposed increase in the gas tax claimed that the increase would hurt working-class people the most since they commute the farthest to work. Suppose that the group randomly surveyed 24 individuals and asked them their daily one-way commuting mileage. The results are as follows:

Working-Class Professional (middle incomes) Professional (wealthy)
17.8 16.5 8.5
26.7 17.4 6.3
49.4 22.0 4.6
9.4 7.4 12.6
65.4 9.4 11.0
47.1 2.1 28.6
19.5 6.4 15.4
51.2 13.9 9.3
Table 13.32

Determine whether the variance in mileage driven is statistically the same between the working class and professional (middle income) groups. Use a 5 percent significance level.

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. The following table lists the number of pages in four different types of magazines.

Home Decorating News Health Computer
172 87 82 104
286 94 153 136
163 123 87 98
205 106 103 207
197 101 96 146
Table 13.33
77.

Which two magazine types do you think have the same variance in length?

78.

Which two magazine types do you think have different variances in length?

79.

Is the variance for the amount of money, in dollars, that shoppers spend on Saturdays at the mall the same as the variance for the amount of money that shoppers spend on Sundays at the mall? Suppose that Table 13.34 shows the results of a study.

Saturday Sunday Saturday Sunday
75 44 62 137
18 58 0 82
150 61 124 39
94 19 50 127
62 99 31 141
73 60 118 73
  89    
Table 13.34
80.

Are the variances for incomes on the East Coast and the West Coast the same? Suppose that Table 13.35 shows the results of a study. Income is shown in thousands of dollars. Assume that both distributions are normal. Use a level of significance of 0.05.

East West
38 71
47 126
30 42
82 51
75 44
52 90
115 88
67  
Table 13.35
81.

Thirty men in college were taught a method of finger tapping. They were randomly assigned to three groups of 10, with each receiving one of three doses of caffeine: 0 mg, 100 mg, or 200 mg. This is approximately the amount in zero, one, or two cups of coffee. Two hours after ingesting the caffeine, the men had the rate of finger tapping per minute recorded. The experiment was double blind, so neither the recorders nor the students knew which group they were in. Does caffeine affect the rate of tapping, and if so how?

Here are the data:

0 mg 100 mg 200 mg 0 mg 100 mg 200 mg
242 248 246 245 246 248
244 245 250 248 247 252
247 248 248 248 250 250
242 247 246 244 246 248
246 243 245 242 244 250
Table 13.36
82.

King Manuel I Komnenos ruled the Byzantine Empire from Constantinople (Istanbul) during the years A.D. 1145–1170. The empire was very powerful during his reign but declined significantly afterward. Coins minted during his era were found in Cyprus, an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Nine coins were from his first coinage, seven from the second, four from the third, and seven from a fourth. These spanned most of his reign. We have data on the silver content of the coins:

First Coinage Second Coinage Third Coinage Fourth Coinage
5.9 6.9 4.9 5.3
6.8 9.0 5.5 5.6
6.4 6.6 4.6 5.5
7.0 8.1 4.5 5.1
6.6 9.3   6.2
7.7 9.2   5.8
7.2 8.6   5.8
6.9      
6.2      
Table 13.37

Did the silver content of the coins change over the course of Manuel’s reign?

Here are the means and variances of each coinage. The data are unbalanced.

  First Second Third Fourth
Mean 6.7444 8.2429 4.875 5.6143
Variance 0.2953 1.2095 0.2025 0.1314
Table 13.38
83.

The American League and the National League of Major League Baseball are each divided into three divisions: East, Central, and West. Many years, fans talk about some divisions being stronger (having better teams) than other divisions. This may have consequences for the postseason. For instance, in 2012 Tampa Bay won 90 games and did not play in the postseason, while Detroit won only 88 and did play in the postseason. This may have been an oddity, but is there good evidence that in the 2012 season, the American League divisions were significantly different in overall records? Use the following data to test whether the mean number of wins per team in the three American League divisions were the same. Note that the data are not balanced, as two divisions had five teams, while one had only four.

Division Team Wins
East NY Yankees 95
East Baltimore 93
East Tampa Bay 90
East Toronto 73
East Boston 69
Table 13.39
Division Team Wins
Central Detroit 88
Central Chicago Sox 85
Central Kansas City 72
Central Cleveland 68
Central Minnesota 66
Table 13.40
Division Team Wins
West Oakland 94
West Texas 93
West LA Angels 89
West Seattle 75
Table 13.41