# Chapter Review

### Concept Items

#### 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy

A glass of water has a temperature of 31 degrees Celsius. What state of matter is it in?

- solid
- liquid
- gas
- plasma

- The thermal energy of the system is the average kinetic energy of the system’s constituent particles due to their motion. The total internal energy of the system is the sum of the kinetic energies and the potential energies of its constituent particles.
- The thermal energy of the system is the average potential energy of the system’s constituent particles due to their motion. The total internal energy of the system is the sum of the kinetic energies and the potential energies of its constituent particles.
- The thermal energy of the system is the average kinetic energy of the system’s constituent particles due to their motion. The total internal energy of the system is the sum of the kinetic energies of its constituent particles.
- The thermal energy of the system is the average potential energy of the systems’ constituent particles due to their motion. The total internal energy of the system is the sum of the kinetic energies of its constituent particles.

What does the Celsius scale use as a reference point?

- The boiling point of mercury
- The boiling point of wax
- The freezing point of water
- The freezing point of wax

#### 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer

- ${\text{J/kg}}^{2}\cdot {}^{\circ}\text{C}$
- $\text{J}\cdot {\text{kg}}^{2}{/}^{\circ}\text{C}$
- $\text{J}\cdot \text{kg}/{}^{\circ}\text{C}$
- $\text{J/kg}{\cdot}^{\circ}\text{C}$

- The transfer of energy through emission and absorption of the electromagnetic waves is known as radiation.
- The transfer of energy without any direct physical contact between any two substances.
- The transfer of energy through direct physical contact between any two substances.
- The transfer of energy by means of the motion of fluids at different temperatures and with different densities.

- Temperature difference is dependent on the chosen temperature scale.
- Temperature change is different in units of kelvins and degrees Celsius.
- Reading of temperatures in kelvins and degree Celsius are the same.
- The temperature change is the same in units of kelvins and degrees Celsius.

- No, the energy of the radiation increases as the temperature increases, and the radiation becomes visible at certain temperatures.
- Yes, the energy of the radiation decreases as the temperature increases, and the radiation remains invisible at those energies.
- No, the energy of the radiation decreases as the temperature increases, until the frequencies of the radiation are the same as those of visible light.
- Yes, as the temperature increases, and the energy is transferred from the object by other mechanisms besides radiation, so that the energy of the radiation does not increase.

What is the specific heat of a substance that requires 5.00 kJ of heat to raise the temperature of 3.00 kg by 5.00 °F?

- 3.33×103 J/kg ⋅° C
- 6.00×103 J/kg ⋅° C
- 3.33×102 J/kg ⋅ ° C
- 6.00×102 J/kg ⋅ ° C

A certain quantity of water is given 4.0 kJ of heat. This raises its temperature by 30.0 °F. What is the mass of the water in grams?

- 5.7 g
- 570 g
- 5700 g
- 57 g

5290 J of heat is given to 0.500 kg water at 15.00 °C. What will its final temperature be?

- 15.25° C
- 12.47 ° C
- 40.3° C
- 17.53° C

#### 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat

- The energy is used to break bonds between particles, and so does not increase the potential energy of the system’s particles.
- The energy is used to break bonds between particles, and so increases the potential energy of the system’s particles.
- The energy is used to break bonds between particles, and so does not increase the kinetic energy of the system’s particles.
- The energy is used to break bonds between particles, and so increases the kinetic energy of the system’s particles.

In which two phases of matter do atoms and molecules have the most distance between them?

- gas and solid
- gas and liquid
- gas and plasma
- liquid and plasma

### Critical Thinking Items

#### 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy

- The heat required by the first container is more than the second because each degree Celsius is equal to $1.8$ degrees Fahrenheit.
- The heat required by the first container is less than the second because each degree Fahrenheit is equal to $1.8$ degrees Celsius.
- The heat required by the first container is more than the second because each degree Celsius is equal to $3.6$ degrees Fahrenheit.
- The heat required by the first container is less than the second because each degree Fahrenheit is equal to $3.6$ degrees Celsius.

What is 100.00 °C in kelvins?

- 212.00 K
- 100.00 K
- 473.15 K
- 373.15 K

#### 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat

Assume 1.0 kg of ice at 0 °C starts to melt. It absorbs 300 kJ of energy by heat. What is the temperature of the water afterwards?

- 10 °C
- 20 °C
- 5 °C
- 0 °C

### Problems

#### 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy

What is 35.0 °F in kelvins?

- 1.67 K
- 35.0 K
- -271.5 K
- 274.8 K

Design a temperature scale where the freezing point of water is 0 degrees and its boiling point is 70 degrees. What would be the room temperature on this scale?

- If room temperature is 25.0 °C, the temperature on the new scale will be 17.5 °.
- If room temperature is 25.0 °C, the temperature on the new scale will be 25.0°.
- If the room temperature is 25.0 °C, the temperature on the new scale will be 35.7°.
- If the room temperature is 25.0 °C, the temperature on the new scale will be 50.0°.

#### 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat

How much energy would it take to heat 1.00 kg of ice at 0 °C to water at 15.0 °C?

- 271 kJ
- 334 kJ
- 62.8 kJ
- 397 kJ

Ice cubes are used to chill a soda with a mass m_{soda} = 0.300 kg at 15.0 °C. The ice is at 0 °C, and the total mass of the ice cubes is 0.020 kg. Assume that the soda is kept in a foam container so that heat loss can be ignored, and that the soda has the same specific heat as water. Find the final temperature when all ice has melted.

- 19.02 °C
- 90.3 °C
- 0.11 °C
- 9.03 °C

### Performance Task