Chapter Review

10.1 Two Population Means with Unknown Standard Deviations

Two population means from independent samples where the population standard deviations are not known

  • Random variable: X¯1X¯2X¯1X¯2 = the difference of the sampling means
  • Distribution: Student’s t-distribution with degrees of freedom (variances not pooled)

10.2 Two Population Means with Known Standard Deviations

A hypothesis test of two population means from independent samples where the population standard deviations are known (typically approximated with the sample standard deviations) will have these characteristics:

  • Random variable: X¯1X¯2X¯1X¯2 = the difference of the means
  • Distribution: normal distribution

10.3 Comparing Two Independent Population Proportions

Test of two population proportions from independent samples

  • Random variable: p^Ap^B=p^Ap^B= difference between the two estimated proportions
  • Distribution: normal distribution

10.4 Matched or Paired Samples (Optional)

A hypothesis test for matched or paired samples (t-test) has these characteristics:

  • Test the differences by subtracting one measurement from the other measurement.
  • Random variable: x¯dx¯d = mean of the differences.
  • Distribution: Student’s t-distribution with n – 1 degrees of freedom.
  • If the number of differences is small (less than 30), the differences must follow a normal distribution.
  • Two samples are drawn from the same set of objects.
  • Samples are dependent.