Sections
Chapter Review

# Chapter Review

### Concept Items

#### 22.1The Structure of the Atom

1.
A star emits light from its core. One observer views the emission unobstructed while a second observer views the emission while obstructed by a cloud of hydrogen gas. Describe the difference between their observations.
1. Intensity of the light in the spectrum will increase.
2. Intensity of the light in the spectrum will decrease.
3. Frequencies will be absorbed from the spectrum.
4. Frequencies will be added to the spectrum.
2.
How does the orbital energy of a hydrogen-like atom change as it increases in atomic number?
1. The orbital energy will increase.
2. The orbital energy will decrease.
3. The orbital energy will remain constant.
4. The orbital energy will be halved.

#### 22.4Nuclear Fission and Fusion

3.
Aside from energy yield, why are nuclear fusion reactors more desirable than nuclear fission reactors?
1. Nuclear fusion reactors have a low installation cost.
2. Radioactive waste is greater for a fusion reactor.
3. Nuclear fusion reactors are easy to design and build.
4. A fusion reactor produces less radioactive waste.

### Critical Thinking Items

#### 22.1The Structure of the Atom

4.
How would the gold foil experiment have changed if electrons were used in place of alpha particles, assuming that the electrons hit the gold foil with the same force as the alpha particles?
1. Being less massive, the electrons might have been scattered to a greater degree than the alpha particles.
2. Being less massive, the electrons might have been scattered to a lesser degree than the alpha particles.
3. Being more massive, the electrons would have been scattered to a greater degree than the alpha particles.
4. Being more massive, the electrons would have been scattered to a lesser degree than the alpha particles.
5.
Why does the emission spectrum of an isolated gas differ from the emission spectrum created by a white light?
1. White light and an emission spectrum are different varieties of continuous distribution of frequencies.
2. White light and an emission spectrum are different series of discrete frequencies.
3. White light is a continuous distribution of frequencies, and an emission spectrum is a series of discrete frequencies.
4. White light is a series of discrete frequencies, and an emission spectrum is a continuous distribution of frequencies.
6.
Why would it most likely be difficult to observe quantized orbital states for satellites orbiting the earth?
1. On a macroscopic level, the orbital states do exist for satellites orbiting Earth but are too closely spaced for us to see.
2. On a macroscopic level, the orbital states do not exist for satellites orbiting Earth.
3. On a macroscopic level, we cannot control the amount of energy that we give to an artificial satellite and thus control its orbital altitude.
4. On a macroscopic level, we cannot control the amount of energy that we give to an artificial satellite but we can control its orbital altitude.
7.

Do standing waves explain why electron orbitals are quantized?

1. no
2. yes
8.

Some terms referring to the observation of light include emission spectrum and absorption spectrum. Based on these definitions, what would a reflection spectrum describe?

1. The reflection spectrum would describe when incident waves are selectively reflected by a substance.
2. The reflection spectrum would describe when incident waves are completely reflected by a substance.
3. The reflection spectrum would describe when incident waves are not absorbed by a substance.
4. The reflection spectrum would describe when incident waves are completely absorbed by a substance.

9.
Explain why an alpha particle can have a greater range in air than a beta particle in lead.
1. While the alpha particle has a lesser charge than a beta particle, the electron density in lead is much less than that in air.
2. While the alpha particle has a greater charge than a beta particle, the electron density in lead is much lower than that in air.
3. While the alpha particle has a lesser charge than a beta particle, the electron density in lead is much greater than that in air.
4. While the alpha particle has a greater charge than a beta particle, the electron density in lead is much higher than that in air.
10.
What influence does the strong nuclear force have on the electrons in an atom?
1. It attracts them toward the nucleus.
2. It repels them away from the nucleus.
3. The strong force makes electrons revolve around the nucleus at a faster rate.
4. It does not have any influence.

11.

Provide an example of something that decreases in a manner similar to radioactive decay.

1. The potential energy of an object falling under the influence of gravity
2. The kinetic energy of a ball that is dropped from a building to the ground
3. Theh charge transfer from an ebonite rod to fur
4. The heat transfer from a hot to a cold object
12.

A sample of radioactive material has a decay constant of 0.05 s–1. Why is it wrong to presume that the sample will take just 20 seconds to fully decay?

1. The decay constant varies with the mass of the sample.
2. The decay constant results vary with the amount of the sample.
3. The decay constant represents a percentage of the sample that cannot decay.
4. The decay constant represents only the fraction of a sample that decays in a unit of time, not the decay of the entire sample.

#### 22.4Nuclear Fission and Fusion

13.
What is the atomic number of the most strongly bound nuclide?
1. $25$
2. $26$
3. $27$
4. $28$
14.
Why are large electromagnets necessary in nuclear fusion reactors?
1. Electromagnets are used to slow down the movement of charge hydrogen plasma.
2. Electromagnets are used to decrease the temperature of hydrogen plasma.
3. Electromagnets are used to confine the hydrogen plasma.
4. Electromagnets are used to stabilize the temperature of the hydrogen plasma.

15.
Why are different radiopharmaceuticals used to image different parts of the body?
1. The different radiopharmaceuticals travel through different blood vessels.
2. The different radiopharmaceuticals travel to different parts of the body.
3. The different radiopharmaceuticals are used to treat different diseases of the body.
16.
Why do people think carefully about whether to receive a diagnostic test such as a CT scan?
1. The radiation from a CT scan is capable of creating cancerous cells.
2. The radiation from a CT scan is capable of destroying cancerous cells.
3. The radiation from a CT scan is capable of creating diabetic cells.
4. The radiation from a CT scan is capable of destroying diabetic cells.
17.
Sometimes it is necessary to take a PET scan very soon after ingesting a radiopharmaceutical. Why is that the case?
1. The radiopharmaceutical may have a short half-life.
2. The radiopharmaceutical may have a long half-life.
3. The radiopharmaceutical quickly passes through the digestive system.
4. The radiopharmaceutical can become lodged in the digestive system.

### Problems

18.

On the Environmental Protection Agency’s website, a helpful tool exists to allow you to determine your average annual radiation dose. Use the tool to determine whether the radiation level you have been exposed to is dangerous and to compare your radiation dosage to other radiative events.

1. Visit the webpage and answer the series of questions provided to determine the average annual radiation dosage that you receive.
2. Table 22.5 shows the immediate effects of a radiation dosage. Using the table, explain what you would experience if your yearly dosage of radiation was received all over the course of one day. Also, determine whether your dosage is considered a low, moderate, or high.
3. Using the information input into the webpage, what percentage of your dosage comes from natural sources? The average percentage of radiation from natural sources for an individual is around 85 percent.
4. Research radiation dosages for evacuees from events like the Chernobyl and Fukushima meltdowns. How does your annual radiation exposure rate compare to the net dosage for evacuees of each event. Use numbers to support your answer.
5. The U.S. Department of Labor limits the amount of radiation that a given worker may receive in a 12 month period.
1. Research the present maximum value and compare your annual exposure rate to that of a radiation worker. Use numbers to support your answer.
2. What types of work are likely to cause an increase in the radiation exposure of a particular worker?

Provide one question based upon the information gathered on the EPA website.