Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:

  • Explain Earth's gravitational force
  • Describe the gravitational effect of the Moon on Earth
  • Discuss weightlessness in space
  • Understand the Cavendish experiment

The information presented in this section supports the following AP® learning objectives and science practices:

  • 2.B.2.1 The student is able to apply g=GMr2g=GMr2 to calculate the gravitational field due to an object with mass M, where the field is a vector directed toward the center of the object of mass M. (S.P. 2.2)
  • 2.B.2.2 The student is able to approximate a numerical value of the gravitational field (g) near the surface of an object from its radius and mass relative to those of Earth or other reference objects. (S.P. 2.2)
  • 3.A.3.4. The student is able to make claims about the force on an object due to the presence of other objects with the same property: mass and electric charge. (S.P. 6.1, 6.4)

What do aching feet, a falling apple, and the orbit of the Moon have in common? Each is caused by the gravitational force. Our feet are strained by supporting our weight—the force of Earth's gravity on us. An apple falls from a tree because of the same force acting a few meters above Earth's surface. And the Moon orbits Earth because gravity is able to supply the necessary centripetal force at a distance of hundreds of millions of meters. In fact, the same force causes planets to orbit the Sun, stars to orbit the center of the galaxy, and galaxies to cluster together. Gravity is another example of underlying simplicity in nature. It is the weakest of the four basic forces found in nature, and in some ways the least understood. It is a force that acts at a distance, without physical contact, and is expressed by a formula that is valid everywhere in the universe, for masses and distances that vary from the tiny to the immense.

Sir Isaac Newton was the first scientist to precisely define the gravitational force, and to show that it could explain both falling bodies and astronomical motions (see Figure 6.20). But Newton was not the first to suspect that the same force caused both our weight and the motion of planets. His forerunner, Galileo Galilei, had contended that falling bodies and planetary motions had the same cause. Some of Newton's contemporaries, such as Robert Hooke, Christopher Wren, and Edmund Halley, had also made some progress toward understanding gravitation. But Newton was the first to propose an exact mathematical form and to use that form to show that the motion of heavenly bodies should be conic sections—circles, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas. This theoretical prediction was a major triumph. It had been known for some time that moons, planets, and comets follow such paths, but no one had been able to propose a mechanism that caused them to follow these paths and not others. This was one of the earliest examples of a theory derived from empirical evidence doing more than merely describing those empirical results; It made claims about the fundamental workings of the universe.

The figure shows a graphic image of a person sitting under a tree carefully looking toward an apple falling from the tree above him. There is a view of a river behind him and an image of the Sun in the sky.
Figure 6.20 According to early accounts, Newton was inspired to make the connection between falling bodies and astronomical motions when he saw an apple fall from a tree and realized that if the gravitational force could extend above the ground to a tree, it might also reach the Sun. The inspiration of Newton's apple is a part of worldwide folklore and may even be based in fact. Great importance is attached to it because Newton's universal law of gravitation and his laws of motion answered very old questions about nature and gave tremendous support to the notion of underlying simplicity and unity in nature. Scientists still expect underlying simplicity to emerge from their ongoing inquiries into nature.

The gravitational force is relatively simple. It is always attractive, and it depends only on the masses involved and the distance between them. Stated in modern language, Newton's universal law of gravitation states that every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force along a line joining them. The force is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

The given figure shows two circular objects, one with a larger mass M on the right side, and another with a smaller mass m on the left side. A point in the center of each object is shown, with both depicting the center of mass of the objects at these points. A line is drawn joining the center of the objects and is labeled as r. Two red arrows, one each from both the center of the objects, are drawn toward each other and are labeled as F, the magnitude of the gravitational force on both the objects.
Figure 6.21 Gravitational attraction is along a line joining the centers of mass of these two bodies. The magnitude of the force is the same on each, consistent with Newton's third law.

Misconception Alert

The magnitude of the force on each object (one has larger mass than the other) is the same, consistent with Newton's third law.

The bodies we are dealing with tend to be large. To simplify the situation we assume that the body acts as if its entire mass is concentrated at one specific point called the center of mass (CM), which will be further explored in Linear Momentum and Collisions. For two bodies having masses mm size 12{m} {} and MM size 12{M} {} with a distance rr size 12{r} {} between their centers of mass, the equation for Newton's universal law of gravitation is

6.40 F=GmMr2,F=GmMr2, size 12{F=G { { ital "mM"} over {r rSup { size 8{2} } } } } {}

where FF size 12{F} {} is the magnitude of the gravitational force and GG size 12{G} {} is a proportionality factor called the gravitational constant. GG size 12{G} {} is a universal gravitational constant—that is, it is thought to be the same everywhere in the universe. It has been measured experimentally to be

6.41 G=6.673×1011N·m2kg2G=6.673×1011N·m2kg2 size 12{G=6 "." "673" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } { {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } over {"kg" rSup { size 8{2} } } } } {}

in SI units. Note that the units of GG size 12{G} {} are such that a force in Newton's is obtained from F=GmMr2F=GmMr2 size 12{F=G { { ital "mM"} over {r rSup { size 8{2} } } } } {}, when considering masses in kilograms and distance in meters. For example, two 1.000 kg masses separated by 1.000 m will experience a gravitational attraction of 6.673×1011N6.673×1011N size 12{6 "." "673" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } N} {}. This is an extraordinarily small force. The small magnitude of the gravitational force is consistent with everyday experience. We are unaware that even large objects like mountains exert gravitational forces on us. In fact, our body weight is the force of attraction of the entire Earth on us with a mass of 6×1024kg6×1024kg size 12{6 times "10" rSup { size 8{"24"} } `"kg"} {}.

The experiment to measure G was first performed by Cavendish, and is explained in more detail later. The fundamental concept it is based on is having a known mass on a spring with a known force, or spring, constant. Then, a second known mass is placed at multiple known distances from the first, and the amount of stretch in the spring resulting from the gravitational attraction of the two masses is measured.

Recall that the acceleration due to gravity gg size 12{g} {} is about 9.80 m/s29.80 m/s2 size 12{9 "." 8`"m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} on Earth. We can now determine why this is so. The weight of an object mg is the gravitational force between it and Earth. Substituting mg for FF size 12{F} {} in Newton's universal law of gravitation gives

6.42 mg=GmMr2,mg=GmMr2, size 12{ ital "mg"=G { { ital "mM"} over {r rSup { size 8{2} } } } } {}

where mm size 12{m} {} is the mass of the object, MM size 12{M} {} is the mass of Earth, and rr size 12{r} {} is the distance to the center of Earth, the latter of which is the distance between the centers of mass of the object and Earth. See Figure 6.22. The mass mm size 12{m} {} of the object cancels, leaving an equation for gg size 12{g} {}

6.43 g=GMr2.g=GMr2. size 12{g=G { {M} over {r rSup { size 8{2} } } } } {}

Substituting known values for Earth's mass and radius to three significant figures,

6.44 g=(6.67×1011N·m2kg2)×5.98×1024kg(6.38×106m)2,g=(6.67×1011N·m2kg2)×5.98×1024kg(6.38×106m)2,

and we obtain a value for the acceleration of a falling body

6.45 g=9.80m/s2.g=9.80m/s2. size 12{g=9 "." "80"" m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
The given figure shows two circular images side by side. The bigger circular image on the left shows the Earth, with a map of Africa over it in the center, and the first quadrant in the circle being a line diagram showing the layers beneath Earth's surface. The second circular image shows a house over the Earth's surface and a vertical line arrow from its center to the downward point in the circle as its radius distance from the Earth's surface. A similar line showing the Earth's radius is also drawn in t
Figure 6.22 The distance between the centers of mass of Earth and an object on its surface is very nearly the same as the radius of Earth, because Earth is so much larger than the object.

This is the expected value and is independent of the body's mass. Newton's law of gravitation takes Galileo's observation that all masses fall with the same acceleration a step further, explaining the observation in terms of a force that causes objects to fall—in fact, in terms of a universally existing force of attraction between masses.

Gravitational Mass and Inertial Mass

Notice that, in Figure 6.21, the mass of the objects under consideration is directly proportional to the gravitational force. More mass means greater forces, and vice versa. However, we have already seen the concept of mass before in a different context.

In Chapter 4, you read that mass is a measure of inertia. However, we normally measure the mass of an object by measuring the force of gravity (F) on it.

How do we know that inertial mass is identical to gravitational mass? Assume that we compare the mass of two objects. The objects have inertial masses m1 and m2. If the objects balance each other on a pan balance, we can conclude that they have the same gravitational mass, that is, that they experience the same force due to gravity, F. Using Newton's second law of motion, F = ma, we can write m1a1 = m2a2.

If we can show that the two objects experience the same acceleration due to gravity, we can conclude that m1 = m2, that is, that the objects' inertial masses are equal.

In fact, Galileo and others conducted experiments to show that, when factors such as wind resistance are kept constant, all objects, regardless of their mass, experience the same acceleration due to gravity. Galileo is famously said to have dropped two balls of different masses off the leaning tower of Pisa to demonstrate this. The balls accelerated at the same rate. Since acceleration due to gravity is constant for all objects on Earth, regardless of their mass or composition, that is, a1 = a2, then m1 = m2. Thus, we can conclude that inertial mass is identical to gravitational mass. This allows us to calculate the acceleration of free fall due to gravity, such as in the orbits of planets.

Take-Home Experiment

Take a marble, a ball, and a spoon and drop them from the same height. Do they hit the floor at the same time? If you drop a piece of paper as well, does it behave like the other objects? Explain your observations.

Making Connections: Gravitation, Other Forces, and General Relativity

Attempts are still being made to understand the gravitational force. Modern physics is exploring the connections of gravity to other forces, space, and time. General relativity alters our view of gravitation, leading us to think of gravitation as bending space and time.

Applying the Science Practices: All Objects Have Gravitational Fields

We can use the formula developed above, g=GMr2g=GMr2 , to calculate the gravitational fields of other objects.

For example, the Moon has a radius of 1.7 × 106 m and a mass of 7.3 × 1022 kg. The gravitational field on the surface of the Moon can be expressed as

6.46 g=GMr2g=GMr2
6.47 =(6.67 × 10-11N·m2kg2) × 7.3 × 1022kg(1.7 × 106m)2=(6.67 × 10-11N·m2kg2) × 7.3 × 1022kg(1.7 × 106m)2
6.48 =1.685m/s2=1.685m/s2

This is about 1/6 of the gravity on Earth, which seems reasonable, since the Moon has a much smaller mass than Earth does.

A person has a mass of 50 kg. The gravitational field 1.0 m from the person's center of mass can be expressed as

6.49 g=GMr2g=GMr2
6.50 =(6.67×1011N·m2kg2)×50kg(1m)2=(6.67×1011N·m2kg2)×50kg(1m)2
6.51 =3.34×109m/s2=3.34×109m/s2

This is less than one-millionth of the gravitational field at the surface of Earth.

In the following example, we make a comparison similar to one made by Newton himself. He noted that if the gravitational force caused the Moon to orbit Earth, then the acceleration due to gravity should equal the centripetal acceleration of the Moon in its orbit. Newton found that the two accelerations agreed “pretty nearly.”

Example 6.6 Earth's Gravitational Force is the Centripetal Force Making the Moon Move in a Curved Path

(a) Find the acceleration due to Earth's gravity at the distance of the Moon.

(b) Calculate the centripetal acceleration needed to keep the Moon in its orbit, assuming a circular orbit about a fixed Earth, and compare it with the value of the acceleration due to Earth's gravity that you have just found.

Strategy for (a)

This calculation is the same as the one finding the acceleration due to gravity at Earth's surface, except that rr size 12{r} {}is the distance from the center of Earth to the center of the Moon. The radius of the Moon's nearly circular orbit is 3.84×108m3.84×108m size 12{3 "." "84" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } `m} {}.

Solution for (a)

Substituting known values into the expression for gg size 12{M} {} found above, remembering that MM size 12{M} {} is the mass of Earth not the Moon, yields

6.52 g=GMr2=6.67×1011Nm2kg2×5.98×1024kg(3.84×108m)2=2.70×103m/s.2g=GMr2=6.67×1011Nm2kg2×5.98×1024kg(3.84×108m)2=2.70×103m/s.2

Strategy for (b)

Centripetal acceleration can be calculated using either form of

6.53 ac=v2rac=2}.ac=v2rac=2}. size 12{ left none matrix { a rSub { size 8{c} } = { {v rSup { size 8{2} } } over {r} } {} ## a rSub { size 8{c} } =rω rSup { size 8{2} } } right rbrace "." } {}

We choose to use the second form

6.54 ac=2,ac=2, size 12{a rSub { size 8{c} } =rω rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

where ωω size 12{ω} {} is the angular velocity of the Moon about Earth.

Solution for (b)

Given that the period of time it takes to make one complete rotation of the Moon's orbit is 27.3 days, (d) and using

6.55 1 d×24hrd×60minhr×60smin=86,400 s1 d×24hrd×60minhr×60smin=86,400 s size 12{ω= { {Δθ} over {Δt} } = { {2π" rad"} over { \( "27" "." "3 d" \) \( "86,400 s/d" \) } } =2 "." "66" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } { {"rad"} over {s} } } {}

we see that

6.56 ω=ΔθΔt= rad(27.3 d)(86,400 s/d)=2.66×106rads.ω=ΔθΔt= rad(27.3 d)(86,400 s/d)=2.66×106rads. size 12{ω= { {Δθ} over {Δt} } = { {2π" rad"} over { \( "27" "." "3 d" \) \( "86,400 s/d" \) } } =2 "." "66" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } { {"rad"} over {s} } } {}

The centripetal acceleration is

6.57 ac=2=(3.84×108m)(2.66×106rad/s)2=2.72×103m/s2.ac=2=(3.84×108m)(2.66×106rad/s)2=2.72×103m/s2.alignl { stack { size 12{a rSub { size 8{c} } =rω rSup { size 8{2} } = \( 3 "." "84" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m" \) \( 2 "." "66" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } " rad/s" \) rSup { size 8{2} } } {} # " "=2 "." "72" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } " m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } {} } } {}

The direction of the acceleration is toward the center of Earth.


The centripetal acceleration of the Moon found in (b) differs by less than 1 percent from the acceleration due to Earth's gravity found in (a). This agreement is approximate because the Moon's orbit is slightly elliptical, and Earth is not stationary; The Earth-Moon system rotates about its center of mass, which is located some 1,700 km below Earth's surface. The clear implication is that Earth's gravitational force causes the Moon to orbit Earth.

Why does Earth not remain stationary as the Moon orbits it? This is because, as expected from Newton's third law, if Earth exerts a force on the Moon, then the Moon should exert an equal and opposite force on Earth (see Figure 6.23). We do not sense the Moon's effect on Earth's motion because the Moon's gravity moves our bodies right along with Earth, but there are other signs on Earth that clearly show the effect of the Moon's gravitational force as discussed in Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity.

Figure a shows the Earth and the Moon around it orbiting in a circular path shown here as a circle around the Earth with an arrow over it showing the counterclockwise direction of the Moon. The center of mass of the circle is shown here with a point on the Earth that is not the Earth's center but just right to its center. Figure b shows the Sun and the counterclockwise rotation of the Earth around it, in an elliptical path, which has wiggles. Along this path the center of mass of the Earth-Moon is also sh
Figure 6.23 (a) Earth and the Moon rotate approximately once a month around their common center of mass. (b) Their center of mass orbits the Sun in an elliptical orbit, but Earth's path around the Sun has wiggles in it. Similar wiggles in the paths of stars have been observed and are considered direct evidence of planets orbiting those stars. This is important because the planets' reflected light is often too dim to be observed.



Ocean tides are one very observable result of the Moon's gravity acting on Earth. Figure 6.24 is a simplified drawing of the Moon's position relative to the tides. Because water easily flows on Earth's surface, a high tide is created on the side of Earth nearest to the Moon, where the Moon's gravitational pull is strongest. Why is there also a high tide on the opposite side of Earth? The answer is that Earth is pulled toward the Moon more than the water on the far side, because Earth is closer to the Moon. So the water on the side of Earth closest to the Moon is pulled away from Earth, and Earth is pulled away from water on the far side. As Earth rotates, the tidal bulge, which is an effect of the tidal forces between an orbiting natural satellite and the primary planet that it orbits, keeps its orientation with the Moon. Thus there are two tides per day—the actual tidal period is about 12 hours and 25.2 minutes—because the Moon moves in its orbit each day as well.

The given figure shows an ellipse, inside which there is a circular image of the Earth. There is a curved arrow in the lower part of the Earth's image pointing in the counterclockwise direction. The right and left side of the ellipse are labeled as High tide and the top and bottom side are labeled as Low tide. Alongside this image a circular image of the Moon is also given with dots showing the crates over it. A vertically upwards vector from its top is also shown, which indicates the direction of the Moo
Figure 6.24 The Moon causes ocean tides by attracting the water on the near side more than Earth, and by attracting Earth more than the water on the far side. The distances and sizes are not to scale. For this simplified representation of the Earth-Moon system, there are two high and two low tides per day at any location, because Earth rotates under the tidal bulge.

The Sun also affects tides, although it has about half the effect of the Moon. However, the largest tides, called spring tides, occur when Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are aligned. The smallest tides, called neap tides, occur when the Sun is at a 90º90º size 12{"90" rSup { size 8{ circ } } } {} angle to the Earth-Moon alignment.

Figure a shows an ellipse, inside which there is a circular image of the Earth. There is a curved arrow in the lower part of the Earth's image pointing in the counterclockwise direction. Alongside this image a circular image of the Moon is also given with dots showing the crates over it. A vertically upward vector from its top is also drawn, which shows the direction of velocity. To the right side of the image, an image of the Sun is also shown, in a circular shape with pointed wiggles throughout its boun
Figure 6.25 (a, b) Spring tides: The highest tides occur when Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are aligned. (c) Neap tide: The lowest tides occur when the Sun lies at 90º90º size 12{"90" rSup { size 8{ circ } } } {} to the Earth-Moon alignment. Note that this figure is not drawn to scale.

Tides are not unique to Earth but occur in many astronomical systems. The most extreme tides occur where the gravitational force is the strongest and varies most rapidly, such as near black holes (see Figure 6.26). A few likely candidates for black holes have been observed in our galaxy. These have masses greater than the Sun but have diameters only a few kilometers across. The tidal forces near them are so great that they can actually tear matter from a companion star.

The figure shows a star in sky near a black hole. The tidal force of the black hole is tearing the matter from the star's surface.
Figure 6.26 A black hole is an object with such strong gravity that not even light can escape it. This black hole was created by the supernova of one star in a two-star system. The tidal forces created by the black hole are so great that it tears matter from the companion star. This matter is compressed and heated as it is sucked into the black hole, creating light and X-rays observable from Earth.

Weightlessness and Microgravity

Weightlessness and Microgravity

In contrast to the tremendous gravitational force near black holes is the apparent gravitational field experienced by astronauts orbiting Earth. What is the effect of weightlessness upon an astronaut who is in orbit for months? Or what about the effect of weightlessness upon plant growth? Weightlessness doesn't mean that an astronaut is not being acted upon by the gravitational force. There is no zero gravity in an astronaut's orbit. The term just means that the astronaut is in free-fall, accelerating with the acceleration due to gravity. If an elevator cable breaks, the passengers inside will be in free fall and will experience weightlessness. You can experience short periods of weightlessness in some rides in amusement parks.

The figure shows some astronauts floating inside the International Space Station
Figure 6.27 Astronauts experiencing weightlessness on board the International Space Station. (Credit: NASA)

Microgravity refers to an environment in which the apparent net acceleration of a body is small compared with that produced by Earth at its surface. Many interesting biology and physics topics have been studied over the past three decades in the presence of microgravity. Of immediate concern is the effect on astronauts of extended times in outer space, such as at the International Space Station. Researchers have observed that muscles will atrophy, or waste away, in this environment. There is also a corresponding loss of bone mass. Study continues on cardiovascular adaptation to space flight. On Earth, blood pressure is usually higher in the feet than in the head, because the higher column of blood exerts a downward force on it, due to gravity. When standing, 70 percent of your blood is below the level of the heart, while in a horizontal position, just the opposite occurs. What difference does the absence of this pressure differential have upon the heart?

Some findings in human physiology in space can be clinically important to the management of diseases back on Earth. On a somewhat negative note, spaceflight is known to affect the human immune system, possibly making the crew members more vulnerable to infectious diseases. Experiments flown in space also have shown that some bacteria grow faster in microgravity than they do on Earth. However, on a positive note, studies indicate that microbial antibiotic production can increase by a factor of two in space-grown cultures. One hopes to be able to understand these mechanisms so that similar successes can be achieved on the ground. In another area of physics space research, inorganic crystals and protein crystals have been grown in outer space that have much higher quality than any grown on Earth, so crystallography studies on their structure can yield much better results.

Plants have evolved with the stimulus of gravity and with gravity sensors. Roots grow downward and shoots grow upward. Plants might be able to provide a life support system for long duration space missions by regenerating the atmosphere, purifying water, and producing food. Some studies have indicated that plant growth and development are not affected by gravity, but there is still uncertainty about structural changes in plants grown in a microgravity environment.

The Cavendish Experiment: Then and Now

The Cavendish Experiment: Then and Now

As previously noted, the universal gravitational constant GG size 12{G} {} is determined experimentally. This definition was first done accurately by Henry Cavendish (1731–1810), an English scientist, in 1798, more than 100 years after Newton published his universal law of gravitation. The measurement of GG size 12{G} {} is very basic and important because it determines the strength of one of the four forces in nature. Cavendish's experiment was very difficult because he measured the tiny gravitational attraction between two ordinary-sized masses (tens of kilograms at most), using apparatus like that in Figure 6.28. Remarkably, his value for GG size 12{G} {} differs by less than 1 percent from the best modern value.

One important consequence of knowing GG size 12{G} {} was that an accurate value for Earth's mass could finally be obtained. This was done by measuring the acceleration due to gravity as accurately as possible and then calculating the mass of Earth MM size 12{M} {} from the relationship Newton's universal law of gravitation gives

6.58 mg=GmMr2,mg=GmMr2, size 12{ ital "mg"=G { { ital "mM"} over {r rSup { size 8{2} } } } } {}

where mm size 12{m} {} is the mass of the object, MM size 12{M} {} is the mass of Earth, and rr size 12{r} {} is the distance to the center of Earth—the distance between the centers of mass of the object and Earth. (see Figure 6.21). The mass mm size 12{m} {} of the object cancels, leaving an equation for gg size 12{g} {}.

6.59 g=GMr2.g=GMr2. size 12{g=G { {M} over {r rSup { size 8{2} } } } } {}

Rearranging to solve for MM size 12{M} {} yields

6.60 M=gr2G.M=gr2G. size 12{M= { { ital "gr" rSup { size 8{2} } } over {G} } } {}

So MM size 12{M} {} can be calculated because all quantities on the right, including the radius of Earth rr size 12{r} {}, are known from direct measurements. We shall see in Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity that knowing GG size 12{G} {} also allows for the determination of astronomical masses. Interestingly, of all the fundamental constants in physics, GG size 12{G} {} is by far the least well determined.

The Cavendish experiment is also used to explore other aspects of gravity. One of the most interesting questions is whether the gravitational force depends on substance as well as mass—for example, whether one kilogram of lead exerts the same gravitational pull as one kilogram of water. A Hungarian scientist named Roland von Eötvös pioneered this inquiry early in the twentieth century. He found, with an accuracy of five parts per billion, that the gravitational force does not depend on the substance. Such experiments continue today, and have improved upon Eötvös' measurements. Cavendish-type experiments such as those of Eric Adelberger and others at the University of Washington, have also put severe limits on the possibility of a fifth force and have verified a major prediction of general relativity—that gravitational energy contributes to rest mass. Ongoing measurements there use a torsion balance and a parallel plate (not spheres, as Cavendish used) to examine how Newton's law of gravitation works over sub-millimeter distances. On this small-scale, do gravitational effects depart from the inverse square law? So far, no deviation has been observed.

In the figure, there is a circular stand at the floor holding two weight bars over it attached through an inverted cup shape object fitted over the stand. The first bar over this is a horizontal flat panel and contains two spheres of mass M at its end. Just over this bar is a stick shaped bar holding two spherical objects of mass m at its end. Over to this bar is mirror at the center of the device facing east. The rotation of this device over the axis of the stand is anti-clockwise. A light source on the
Figure 6.28 Cavendish used an apparatus like this to measure the gravitational attraction between the two suspended spheres (mm size 12{m} {}) and the two on the stand (MM size 12{M} {}) by observing the amount of torsion (twisting) created in the fiber. Distance between the masses can be varied to check the dependence of the force on distance. Modern experiments of this type continue to explore gravity.