Nucleic acids can be isolated from cells for the purposes of further analysis by breaking open the cells and enzymatically destroying all other major macromolecules. Fragmented or whole chromosomes can be separated on the basis of size by gel electrophoresis. Short stretches of DNA or RNA can be amplified by PCR. Southern and northern blotting can be used to detect the presence of specific short sequences in a DNA or RNA sample. The term cloning may refer to cloning small DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cloning cell populations (cellular cloning), or cloning entire organisms (reproductive cloning). Genetic testing is performed to identify disease-causing genes, and gene therapy is used to cure an inheritable disease.
Transgenic organisms possess DNA from a different species, usually generated by molecular cloning techniques. Vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones are examples of products obtained by recombinant DNA technology. Transgenic plants are usually created to improve characteristics of crop plants.
17.2 Mapping Genomes
Genome mapping is similar to solving a big, complicated puzzle with pieces of information coming from laboratories all over the world. Genetic maps provide an outline for the location of genes within a genome, and they estimate the distance between genes and genetic markers on the basis of recombination frequencies during meiosis. Physical maps provide detailed information about the physical distance between the genes. The most detailed information is available through sequence mapping. Information from all mapping and sequencing sources is combined to study an entire genome.
17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
Whole-genome sequencing is the latest available resource to treat genetic diseases. Some doctors are using whole-genome sequencing to save lives. Genomics has many industrial applications including biofuel development, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and pollution control. The basic principle of all modern-day sequencing strategies involves the chain termination method of sequencing.
Although the human genome sequences provide key insights to medical professionals, researchers use whole-genome sequences of model organisms to better understand the genome of the species. Automation and the decreased cost of whole-genome sequencing may lead to personalized medicine in the future.
17.4 Applying Genomics
Imagination is the only barrier to the applicability of genomics. Genomics is being applied to most fields of biology; it is being used for personalized medicine, prediction of disease risks at an individual level, the study of drug interactions before the conduct of clinical trials, and the study of microorganisms in the environment as opposed to the laboratory. It is also being applied to developments such as the generation of new biofuels, genealogical assessment using mitochondria, advances in forensic science, and improvements in agriculture.
17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
Proteomics is the study of the entire set of proteins expressed by a given type of cell under certain environmental conditions. In a multicellular organism, different cell types will have different proteomes, and these will vary with changes in the environment. Unlike a genome, a proteome is dynamic and in constant flux, which makes it both more complicated and more useful than the knowledge of genomes alone.
Proteomics approaches rely on protein analysis; these techniques are constantly being upgraded. Proteomics has been used to study different types of cancer. Different biomarkers and protein signatures are being used to analyze each type of cancer. The future goal is to have a personalized treatment plan for each individual.